Author

# Martin Vetterli

Other affiliations: Alcatel-Lucent, Gibraltar Hardware, University of Southern California ...read more

Bio: Martin Vetterli is an academic researcher from École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wavelet & Filter bank. The author has an hindex of 105, co-authored 761 publications receiving 57825 citations. Previous affiliations of Martin Vetterli include Alcatel-Lucent & Gibraltar Hardware.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

[...]

TL;DR: A "true" two-dimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information is pursued and it is shown that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves.

Abstract: The limitations of commonly used separable extensions of one-dimensional transforms, such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms, in capturing the geometry of image edges are well known. In this paper, we pursue a "true" two-dimensional transform that can capture the intrinsic geometrical structure that is key in visual information. The main challenge in exploring geometry in images comes from the discrete nature of the data. Thus, unlike other approaches, such as curvelets, that first develop a transform in the continuous domain and then discretize for sampled data, our approach starts with a discrete-domain construction and then studies its convergence to an expansion in the continuous domain. Specifically, we construct a discrete-domain multiresolution and multidirection expansion using nonseparable filter banks, in much the same way that wavelets were derived from filter banks. This construction results in a flexible multiresolution, local, and directional image expansion using contour segments, and, thus, it is named the contourlet transform. The discrete contourlet transform has a fast iterated filter bank algorithm that requires an order N operations for N-pixel images. Furthermore, we establish a precise link between the developed filter bank and the associated continuous-domain contourlet expansion via a directional multiresolution analysis framework. We show that with parabolic scaling and sufficient directional vanishing moments, contourlets achieve the optimal approximation rate for piecewise smooth functions with discontinuities along twice continuously differentiable curves. Finally, we show some numerical experiments demonstrating the potential of contourlets in several image processing applications.

3,728 citations

••

[...]

CNET

^{1}TL;DR: A simple, nonrigorous, synthetic view of wavelet theory is presented for both review and tutorial purposes, which includes nonstationary signal analysis, scale versus frequency,Wavelet analysis and synthesis, scalograms, wavelet frames and orthonormal bases, the discrete-time case, and applications of wavelets in signal processing.

Abstract: A simple, nonrigorous, synthetic view of wavelet theory is presented for both review and tutorial purposes. The discussion includes nonstationary signal analysis, scale versus frequency, wavelet analysis and synthesis, scalograms, wavelet frames and orthonormal bases, the discrete-time case, and applications of wavelets in signal processing. The main definitions and properties of wavelet transforms are covered, and connections among the various fields where results have been developed are shown. >

2,821 citations

•

[...]

TL;DR: Wavelets and Subband Coding offered a unified view of the exciting field of wavelets and their discrete-time cousins, filter banks, or subband coding and developed the theory in both continuous and discrete time.

Abstract: First published in 1995, Wavelets and Subband Coding offered a unified view of the exciting field of wavelets and their discrete-time cousins, filter banks, or subband coding. The book developed the theory in both continuous and discrete time, and presented important applications. During the past decade, it filled a useful need in explaining a new view of signal processing based on flexible time-frequency analysis and its applications. Since 2007, the authors now retain the copyright and allow open access to the book.

2,778 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: An adaptive, data-driven threshold for image denoising via wavelet soft-thresholding derived in a Bayesian framework, and the prior used on the wavelet coefficients is the generalized Gaussian distribution widely used in image processing applications.

Abstract: The first part of this paper proposes an adaptive, data-driven threshold for image denoising via wavelet soft-thresholding. The threshold is derived in a Bayesian framework, and the prior used on the wavelet coefficients is the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) widely used in image processing applications. The proposed threshold is simple and closed-form, and it is adaptive to each subband because it depends on data-driven estimates of the parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed method, called BayesShrink, is typically within 5% of the MSE of the best soft-thresholding benchmark with the image assumed known. It also outperforms SureShrink (Donoho and Johnstone 1994, 1995; Donoho 1995) most of the time. The second part of the paper attempts to further validate claims that lossy compression can be used for denoising. The BayesShrink threshold can aid in the parameter selection of a coder designed with the intention of denoising, and thus achieving simultaneous denoising and compression. Specifically, the zero-zone in the quantization step of compression is analogous to the threshold value in the thresholding function. The remaining coder design parameters are chosen based on a criterion derived from Rissanen's minimum description length (MDL) principle. Experiments show that this compression method does indeed remove noise significantly, especially for large noise power. However, it introduces quantization noise and should be used only if bitrate were an additional concern to denoising.

2,707 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: The perfect reconstruction condition is posed as a Bezout identity, and it is shown how it is possible to find all higher-degree complementary filters based on an analogy with the theory of Diophantine equations.

Abstract: The wavelet transform is compared with the more classical short-time Fourier transform approach to signal analysis. Then the relations between wavelets, filter banks, and multiresolution signal processing are explored. A brief review is given of perfect reconstruction filter banks, which can be used both for computing the discrete wavelet transform, and for deriving continuous wavelet bases, provided that the filters meet a constraint known as regularity. Given a low-pass filter, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a complementary high-pass filter that will permit perfect reconstruction are derived. The perfect reconstruction condition is posed as a Bezout identity, and it is shown how it is possible to find all higher-degree complementary filters based on an analogy with the theory of Diophantine equations. An alternative approach based on the theory of continued fractions is also given. These results are used to design highly regular filter banks, which generate biorthogonal continuous wavelet bases with symmetries. >

1,748 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

•

[...]

TL;DR: It is possible to design n=O(Nlog(m)) nonadaptive measurements allowing reconstruction with accuracy comparable to that attainable with direct knowledge of the N most important coefficients, and a good approximation to those N important coefficients is extracted from the n measurements by solving a linear program-Basis Pursuit in signal processing.

Abstract: Suppose x is an unknown vector in Ropfm (a digital image or signal); we plan to measure n general linear functionals of x and then reconstruct. If x is known to be compressible by transform coding with a known transform, and we reconstruct via the nonlinear procedure defined here, the number of measurements n can be dramatically smaller than the size m. Thus, certain natural classes of images with m pixels need only n=O(m1/4log5/2(m)) nonadaptive nonpixel samples for faithful recovery, as opposed to the usual m pixel samples. More specifically, suppose x has a sparse representation in some orthonormal basis (e.g., wavelet, Fourier) or tight frame (e.g., curvelet, Gabor)-so the coefficients belong to an lscrp ball for 0

18,593 citations

•

[...]

01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: An introduction to a Transient World and an Approximation Tour of Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases.

Abstract: Introduction to a Transient World. Fourier Kingdom. Discrete Revolution. Time Meets Frequency. Frames. Wavelet Zoom. Wavelet Bases. Wavelet Packet and Local Cosine Bases. An Approximation Tour. Estimations are Approximations. Transform Coding. Appendix A: Mathematical Complements. Appendix B: Software Toolboxes.

17,299 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors considered the model problem of reconstructing an object from incomplete frequency samples and showed that with probability at least 1-O(N/sup -M/), f can be reconstructed exactly as the solution to the lscr/sub 1/ minimization problem.

Abstract: This paper considers the model problem of reconstructing an object from incomplete frequency samples. Consider a discrete-time signal f/spl isin/C/sup N/ and a randomly chosen set of frequencies /spl Omega/. Is it possible to reconstruct f from the partial knowledge of its Fourier coefficients on the set /spl Omega/? A typical result of this paper is as follows. Suppose that f is a superposition of |T| spikes f(t)=/spl sigma//sub /spl tau//spl isin/T/f(/spl tau/)/spl delta/(t-/spl tau/) obeying |T|/spl les/C/sub M//spl middot/(log N)/sup -1/ /spl middot/ |/spl Omega/| for some constant C/sub M/>0. We do not know the locations of the spikes nor their amplitudes. Then with probability at least 1-O(N/sup -M/), f can be reconstructed exactly as the solution to the /spl lscr//sub 1/ minimization problem. In short, exact recovery may be obtained by solving a convex optimization problem. We give numerical values for C/sub M/ which depend on the desired probability of success. Our result may be interpreted as a novel kind of nonlinear sampling theorem. In effect, it says that any signal made out of |T| spikes may be recovered by convex programming from almost every set of frequencies of size O(|T|/spl middot/logN). Moreover, this is nearly optimal in the sense that any method succeeding with probability 1-O(N/sup -M/) would in general require a number of frequency samples at least proportional to |T|/spl middot/logN. The methodology extends to a variety of other situations and higher dimensions. For example, we show how one can reconstruct a piecewise constant (one- or two-dimensional) object from incomplete frequency samples - provided that the number of jumps (discontinuities) obeys the condition above - by minimizing other convex functionals such as the total variation of f.

13,375 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: Using distributed antennas, this work develops and analyzes low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks and develops performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading.

Abstract: We develop and analyze low-complexity cooperative diversity protocols that combat fading induced by multipath propagation in wireless networks. The underlying techniques exploit space diversity available through cooperating terminals' relaying signals for one another. We outline several strategies employed by the cooperating radios, including fixed relaying schemes such as amplify-and-forward and decode-and-forward, selection relaying schemes that adapt based upon channel measurements between the cooperating terminals, and incremental relaying schemes that adapt based upon limited feedback from the destination terminal. We develop performance characterizations in terms of outage events and associated outage probabilities, which measure robustness of the transmissions to fading, focusing on the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Except for fixed decode-and-forward, all of our cooperative diversity protocols are efficient in the sense that they achieve full diversity (i.e., second-order diversity in the case of two terminals), and, moreover, are close to optimum (within 1.5 dB) in certain regimes. Thus, using distributed antennas, we can provide the powerful benefits of space diversity without need for physical arrays, though at a loss of spectral efficiency due to half-duplex operation and possibly at the cost of additional receive hardware. Applicable to any wireless setting, including cellular or ad hoc networks-wherever space constraints preclude the use of physical arrays-the performance characterizations reveal that large power or energy savings result from the use of these protocols.

12,519 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: This tutorial gives an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation, and includes a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic programming part and advanced methods for dealing with large datasets.

Abstract: In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing with large datasets. Finally, we mention some modifications and extensions that have been applied to the standard SV algorithm, and discuss the aspect of regularization from a SV perspective.

9,105 citations