Bio: Martin Westlake is an academic researcher from European Commission. The author has contributed to research in topics: Political science & European union. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 12 publications receiving 1041 citations.
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: The Council in the EU's institutional framework the Council, members, rules, etc the Presidency COREPER: Council-Commission relationship Council-Parliament relationship internal procedures the General Secretariat other intergovernmental mechanisms Maastricht as discussed by the authors
Abstract: The Council in the EU's institutional framework the Council, members, rules, etc the Presidency COREPER: Council-Commission relationship Council-Parliament relationship internal procedures the General Secretariat other intergovernmental mechanisms Maastricht.
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The European Parliament in context: the paradigm of parliamentary democracy - decline, persistence and renewal the coalescence of European integration and the role of parliamentary assemblies the institutional context the European Parliament's relations with the other Community Institutions the European parliament and the National Parliaments the broader context as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Part I The European Parliament in context: the paradigm of parliamentary democracy - decline, persistence and renewal the coalescence of European integration and the role of parliamentary assemblies the institutional context the European Parliament's relations with the other Community Institutions the European Parliament and the National Parliaments the broader context. Part 2 The electoral link: European citizenship the right to vote and to stand as a candidate direct elections uniform elections the current diversity the numbers and distribution of members consituency boundaries in the United Kingdom. Part III The powers of the European Parliament: the power of dismissal (the censure motion) the power of appointment (consultation) budgetary powers legislative powers external powers economic and monetary union justice and home affairs parliament's other scrutiny and supervisory powers the power of expression and debate. Part 4 The politics of the European Parliament: parliament's structure parliament's method parliaments's political agenda parliament's future. Part 5 The 1994 European elections.
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The conceptual terrain and parliamentary coalescence are discussed in this article. But the authors focus on career types, membership profiles, careers, Strasbourg and Westminster, and the assignment process of the European Parliament.
Abstract: Part I The conceptual terrain and parliamentary coalescence. Part II Career types, membership profiles, careers, Strasbourg and Westminster. Part III European career pathways? The parliamentary hierarchy, the assignment processes, the consequences. Part IV Changing attitudes to institutional reform. Part V Overall conclusions. Annexes: Committee assignments, 1979-1992, of the 30 "survivors" voting records of the 30 "survivors" on the 14 resolutions.
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: In this article, the authors step back from the detail of the latest intergovernmental conference and budgetary negotiations to generate conclusions of enduring value about the nature of European integration, including Britain and integration, the rule of law, making foreign policy work, and the democratic deficit.
Abstract: Introduced with a preface by Jacques Delors, this volume offers new insights and develops generalised theories about the nature of European integration. The contributors step back from the detail of the latest intergovernmental conference and budgetary negotiations to generate conclusions of enduring value. The issues dealt with include the following: * Britain and integration * intergovernmental conferences * the rule of law * making foreign policy work * the democratic deficit.
01 Jun 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a framework for the Conservative Party, Labour Party, Liberal Democrats, National Campaign, and National Campaign in the Regions (NCR) in the UK.
Abstract: Authors and Contributors - Acknowledgements - Contents - List of Tables - List of Illustrations - Background - 1989-94 - Framework - Conservative Party - Labour Party - Liberal Democrats and Others - National Campaign - Campaign in the Regions - Outcome and Consequences - Questions - Statistical Appendix - Bibliography - Index
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, Veto players analysis of European Union Institutions is presented, focusing on the role of individual veto players and collective players in the analysis of the institutions of the European Union.
Abstract: List of Figures ix List of Tables xi Preface and Acknowledgments xiii Introduction 1 PART I: VETO PLAYERS THEORY 17 One: Individual Veto Players 19 Two: Collective Veto Players 38 PART II: VETO PLAYERS AND INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS 65 Three: Regimes: Nondemocratic, Presidential, and Parliamentary 67 Four: Governments and Parliaments 91 Five: Referendums 116 Six: Federalism, Bicameralism, and Qualified Majorities 136 PART III: POLICY EFFECTS OF VETO PLAYERS 161 Seven: Legislation 165 Eight: Macroeconomic Policies 187 PART IV: SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF VETO PLAYERS 207 Nine: Government Stability 209 Ten: Judiciary and Bureaucracies 222 Eleven: Veto Players Analysis of European Union Institutions 248 Conclusion 283 Bibliography 291 Index 309
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explained the EU political system and the decision-making procedures of the European Union, focusing on the role of the Single Market and the single market's role in the political system.
Abstract: Introduction: Explaining the EU Political System PART I: GOVERNMENT Executive Politics Legislative Politics Judicial Politics PART II: POLITICS Public Opinion Democracy, Parties and Elections Interest Representation PART III: POLICY-MAKING Regulation of the Single Market Expenditure Policies Economic and Monetary Union Citizen Freedom and Security Policies Foreign Policies Conclusions: Rethinking the European Union Appendix: Decision-making Procedures of the European Union Bibliography
TL;DR: A review of the available data on the present use of veterinary antibiotics in agriculture, on the occurrence of antibiotic compounds and resistant bacteria in soil and water and demonstrates the need for further studies as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The fate of antibiotics in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in animal husbandry, is subject to recent studies and the issue of this review. The assumed quantity of antibiotics excreted by animal husbandry adds up to thousands of tonnes per year. Administered medicines, their metabolites or degradation products reach the terrestrial and aquatic environment by the application of manure or slurry to areas used agriculturally, or by pasture-reared animals excreting directly on the land, followed by surface run-off, driftage or leaching in deeper layers of the earth. The scientific interest in antimicrobially active compounds in manure and soil, but also in surface and ground water, has increased during the last decade. On the one side, scientific interest has focused on the behaviour of antibiotics and their fate in the environment, on the other hand, their impact on environmental and other bacteria has become an issue of research. Analytical methods have now been developed appropriately and studies using these new techniques provide accurate data on concentrations of antimicrobial compounds and their residues in different organic matters. Some antibiotics seem to persist a long time in the environment, especially in soil, while others degrade very fast. Not only the fate of these pharmaceuticals but their origin as well is an object of scientific interest. Besides human input via wastewater and other effluents, livestock production has been recognised as a source of contamination. One main concern with regard to the excessive use of antibiotics in livestock production is the potential promotion of resistance and the resulting disadvantages in the therapeutic use of antimicrobials. Since the beginning of antibiotic therapy, more and more resistant bacterial strains have been isolated from environmental sources showing one or multiple resistance. There have been several attempts to use antibiotic resistance patterns in different bacteria as indicators for various sources of faecal pollution. This review gives an overview of the available data on the present use of veterinary antibiotics in agriculture, on the occurrence of antibiotic compounds and resistant bacteria in soil and water and demonstrates the need for further studies.
14 May 2007
TL;DR: For instance, the authors found that transnational parties in the European Parliament are highly cohesive and the classic 'left-right' dimension dominates voting behavior. And the cohesion of parties has increased as the powers of the Parliament have increased, suggesting that like-minded MEPs have incentives to form stable transnational party organizations.
Abstract: With the European Parliament comprising politicians from many different countries, cultures, languages, national parties and institutional backgrounds, one might expect politics in the Parliament to be highly-fragmented and unpredictable. By studying more than 12,000 recorded votes between 1979 and 2004 this 2007 book establishes that the opposite is in fact true: transnational parties in the European Parliament are highly cohesive and the classic 'left-right' dimension dominates voting behaviour. Furthermore, the cohesion of parties in the European Parliament has increased as the powers of the Parliament have increased. The authors suggest that the main reason for these developments is that like-minded MEPs have incentives to form stable transnational party organizations and to use these organizations to compete over European Union policies. They suggest that this is a positive development for the future of democratic accountability in the European Union.
TL;DR: In this paper, a theoretical framework is developed in order to explain the access of business interests to the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers, and the degree of access to these institutions is explained in terms of a theory of demand and supply of access goods.
Abstract: The complexity and diversity of European interest politics is exem- plie ed by the multitude of channels and targets that private actors use to lobby in the EU multi-level system. The aim of this article is to investigate the logic behind the apparent ad hoc lobbying behaviour of private interests. A theoretical framework is developed in order to explain the access of business interests to the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of Ministers. The degree of access to these institutions is explained in terms of a theory of demand and supply of access goods. Access goods concern information that is crucial in the EU policy-making process. In order to gain access to an EU institution, business interests have to provide the access good(s) demanded by that institution. Organizational form is introduced as the innovative unit of analysis. It follows that associative business action is unconventionally studied in relation to two other organizational forms: individual company action and third- party representation.