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Maryse Gibert

Bio: Maryse Gibert is an academic researcher from Pasteur Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Clostridium perfringens & Actin cytoskeleton. The author has an hindex of 31, co-authored 42 publications receiving 4103 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Toxin genotyping is more reliable than the classical toxinotyping for identifying pathovars involved in a specific disease and to define vaccine requirements.

592 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study provides genetic markers for the identification of 027 strains and offers a unique opportunity to explain the recent emergence of a hypervirulent bacterium.
Abstract: Background: The continued rise of Clostridium difficile infections worldwide has been accompanied by the rapid emergence of a highly virulent clone designated PCR-ribotype 027. To understand more about the evolution of this virulent clone, we made a three-way genomic and phenotypic comparison of an 'historic' non-epidemic 027 C. difficile (CD196), a recent epidemic and hypervirulent 027 (R20291) and a previously sequenced PCR-ribotype 012 strain (630).

466 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that 6.4% of toxigenic isolates of C. difficile referred to the Anaerobe Reference Unit from UK hospitals have cdtA and cdtB genes.
Abstract: In addition to the two large clostridial cytotoxins (TcdA and TcdB) certain strains of Clostridium difficile produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase, or binary toxin. PCR reactions were developed to detect genes encoding the enzymatic (cdtA) and binding (cdtB) components of the binary toxin and 170 representative strains were tested to assess the prevalence of the toxin. Positive PCR results (n=59) were confirmed by immunoblotting and ADP-ribosyltransferase assay. PCR ribotype and toxinotype (restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of genes for TcdA and TcdB) correlated with possession of binary toxin genes. All strains with cdtA and cdtB belonged to toxin-variable toxinotypes and five toxin-producing groups of strains have been described according to the presence or absence of TcdA, TcdB and binary toxin. Result indicate that ca. 6.4% of toxigenic isolates of C. difficile referred to the Anaerobe Reference Unit from UK hospitals have cdtA and cdtB genes.

457 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
S Perelle1, Maryse Gibert1, P Bourlioux1, G Corthier1, Michel-Robert Popoff1 
TL;DR: The results indicate that some C. difficile strains synthesize a binary toxin that could be an additional virulence factor, similar to other clostridial binary toxins.
Abstract: A Clostridium difficile isolate was found to produce an actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase (CDT) homologous to the enzymatic components of Clostridium perfringens iota toxin and Clostridium spiroforme toxin (M. R. Popoff, E. J. Rubin, D. M. Gill, and P. Boquet, Infect. Immun. 56:2299-2306, 1988). The CDT locus from C. difficile CD196 was cloned and sequenced. It contained two genes (cdtA and cdtB) which display organizations and sequences similar to those of the iota toxin gene. The deduced enzymatic (CDTa) and binding (CDTb) components have 81 and 84% identity, respectively, with the corresponding components of iota toxin. CDTa and CDTb induced actin cytoskeleton alterations similar to those caused by other clostridial binary toxins. The lower level of production of binary toxin by CD196 than of iota toxin by C. perfringens was related to a lower transcript level, possibly due to a promoter region different from that of iota toxin genes. The cdtA and cdtB genes have been detected in 3 of 24 clinical isolates examined, and cdtB alone was found in 2 additional strains. One strain (in addition to CD196) was shown by Western blotting to produce CDTa and CDTb. These results indicate that some C. difficile strains synthesize a binary toxin that could be an additional virulence factor.

284 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Dec 1997-Gene
TL;DR: A novel toxin (Beta2) and its gene were characterized from a Clostridium perfringens strain isolated from a piglet with necrotic enteritis, and sequence homology with alpha-toxin, gamma-t toxin, and leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus is revealed.

283 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: A previously uncommon strain of C. difficile with variations in toxin genes has become more resistant to fluoroquinolones and has emerged as a cause of geographically dispersed outbreaks of C.'s Difficile-associated disease.
Abstract: background Recent reports suggest that the rate and severity of Clostridium difficile –associated disease in the United States are increasing and that the increase may be associated with the emergence of a new strain of C. difficile with increased virulence, resistance, or both. methods A total of 187 C. difficile isolates were collected from eight health care facilities in six states (Georgia, Illinois, Maine, New Jersey, Oregon, and Pennsylvania) in which outbreaks of C. difficile –associated disease had occurred between 2000 and 2003. The isolates were characterized by restriction-endonuclease analysis (REA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and toxinotyping, and the results were compared with those from a database of more than 6000 isolates obtained before 2001. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the recently described binary toxin CDT and a deletion in the pathogenicity locus gene, tcdC, that might result in increased production of toxins A and B. results Isolates that belonged to one REA group (BI) and had the same PFGE type (NAP1) were identified in specimens collected from patients at all eight facilities and accounted for at least half of the isolates from five facilities. REA group BI, which was first identified in 1984, was uncommon among isolates from the historic database (14 cases). Both historic and current (obtained since 2001) BI/NAP1 isolates were of toxinotype III, were positive for the binary toxin CDT, and contained an 18-bp tcdC deletion. Resistance to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin was more common in current BI/NAP1 isolates than in non-BI/NAP1 isolates (100 percent vs. 42 percent, P<0.001), whereas the rate of resistance to clindamycin was the same in the two groups (79 percent). All of the current but none of the historic BI/NAP1 isolates were resistant to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin (P<0.001).

2,033 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Mar 2008-Sensors
TL;DR: In this article, the most common traditional traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, including nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing.
Abstract: Quantification of biological or biochemical processes are of utmost importance for medical, biological and biotechnological applications. However, converting the biological information to an easily processed electronic signal is challenging due to the complexity of connecting an electronic device directly to a biological environment. Electrochemical biosensors provide an attractive means to analyze the content of a biological sample due to the direct conversion of a biological event to an electronic signal. Over the past decades several sensing concepts and related devices have been developed. In this review, the most common traditional techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry, impedance spectroscopy, and various field-effect transistor based methods are presented along with selected promising novel approaches, such as nanowire or magnetic nanoparticle-based biosensing. Additional measurement techniques, which have been shown useful in combination with electrochemical detection, are also summarized, such as the electrochemical versions of surface plasmon resonance, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and scanning probe microscopy. The signal transduction and the general performance of electrochemical sensors are often determined by the surface architectures that connect the sensing element to the biological sample at the nanometer scale. The most common surface modification techniques, the various electrochemical transduction mechanisms, and the choice of the recognition receptor molecules all influence the ultimate sensitivity of the sensor. New nanotechnology-based approaches, such as the use of engineered ion-channels in lipid bilayers, the encapsulation of enzymes into vesicles, polymersomes, or polyelectrolyte capsules provide additional possibilities for signal amplification. In particular, this review highlights the importance of the precise control over the delicate interplay between surface nano-architectures, surface functionalization and the chosen sensor transducer principle, as well as the usefulness of complementary characterization tools to interpret and to optimize the sensor response.

1,550 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework to demonstrate that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving.
Abstract: Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. Many prophages from bacterial pathogens encode virulence factors. Two situations can be distinguished: Vibrio cholerae, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Clostridium botulinum depend on a specific prophage-encoded toxin for causing a specific disease, whereas Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded virulence or fitness factor makes an incremental contribution to the fitness of the lysogen. These prophages behave like “swarms” of related prophages. Prophage diversification seems to be fueled by the frequent transfer of phage material by recombination with superinfecting phages, resident prophages, or occasional acquisition of other mobile DNA elements or bacterial chromosomal genes. Prophages also contribute to the diversification of the bacterial genome architecture. In many cases, they actually represent a large fraction of the strain-specific DNA sequences. In addition, they can serve as anchoring points for genome inversions. The current review presents the available genomics and biological data on prophages from bacterial pathogens in an evolutionary framework.

1,499 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The severity of C difficile-associated disease caused by NAP1/027 could result from hyperproduction of toxins A and B, and dissemination of this strain in North America and Europe could lead to important changes in the epidemiology of C diffusion disease.

1,442 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Since 2001, the prevalence and severity of C. difficile infection has increased significantly, which has led to increased research interest and the discovery of new virulence factors, and has expanded and focused the development of new treatment and prevention regimens.
Abstract: Clostridium difficile is now considered to be one of the most important causes of health care-associated infections. C. difficile infections are also emerging in the community and in animals used for food, and are no longer viewed simply as unpleasant complications that follow antibiotic therapy. Since 2001, the prevalence and severity of C. difficile infection has increased significantly, which has led to increased research interest and the discovery of new virulence factors, and has expanded and focused the development of new treatment and prevention regimens. This Review summarizes the recent epidemiological changes in C. difficile infection, our current knowledge of C. difficile virulence factors and the clinical outcomes of C. difficile infection.

1,339 citations