Bio: Mathew Reichertz is an academic researcher from NSCAD University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Visual perception & Peripheral vision. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 4 publications receiving 2 citations.
TL;DR: An eye monitor with high spatial and temporal precision was used to provide direct evidence for conventional ideas about the processing predilections of central and peripheral vision by controlling whether carefully designed hierarchical scenes were viewed only with central vision, only with peripheral vision, or with full vision.
Abstract: Conventional wisdom tells us that the appreciation of local (detail) and global (form and spatial relations) information from a scene is preferentially processed by central and peripheral vision, respectively. Using an eye monitor with high spatial and temporal precision, we sought to provide direct evidence for this idea by controlling whether carefully designed hierarchical scenes were viewed only with central vision (the periphery was masked), only with peripheral vision (the central region was masked), or with full vision. The scenes consisted of a neutral form (a D shape) composed of target circles or squares, or a target circle or square composed of neutral material (Ds). The task was for the participant to determine as quickly as possible whether the scene contained circle(s) or square(s). Increasing the size of the masked region had deleterious effects on performance. This deleterious effect was greater for the extraction of form information when the periphery was masked, and greater for the extraction of material information when central vision was masked, thus providing direct evidence for conventional ideas about the processing predilections of central and peripheral vision.
TL;DR: In this paper, a pilot study in the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design (NSCAD) Drawing Laboratory showed that the illumination of a scene influences how that scene is scanned and how it is depicted.
Abstract: The illumination of a scene influences how that scene is scanned and how it is depicted. This premise, together with assumptions regarding implications for teaching observational drawing, was the basis for a pilot study in the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design (NSCAD) Drawing Laboratory. The pilot provided evidence that helped refine the question and methods described in this expanded study. As in the pilot, participants worked from common stimuli that were lit in two distinct ways. The participants drew for a predetermined period of time while their hand movements were recorded digitally and the entire process was observed firsthand. Over a period of 7 days, five participants each completed four drawings. The 20 drawings were compared and the recordings analyzed. Digital analysis generated the most informative data in that, while light’s influence on drawing strategies proved to be less significant than anticipated, changes in drawing behavior were observed with implications for teaching and learning.
TL;DR: It is found that erasing occurs with greater frequency when participants work in a digital environment than in an analogue one and that, while there were significant tool use differences between the environments, those differences did not result in differences in the accuracy of final drawings indicating the adaptability of participants using different means to achieve the same effect.
Abstract: Erasing when drawing occurs for a variety of reasons. While the most obvious may be correction of mistakes, at other times erasers are used to create such things as highlights or marks that introduce particular aesthetic elements. When a drawing is made on paper, partial erasure ‘marks’ can provide a useful record of a drawing’s evolution. For the teacher, this historical record can be a catalyst for helpful commentary and criticism. While programmed to simulate an analogue eraser, in a digital environment the erase function can eradicate a drawing’s history with a single click. We studied analogue and digital tool use behaviours (including erasing) to compare the frequency of erasure and the effect of erasing on observational accuracy in adults between the age of 17 and 64 with various levels of drawing experience from less than two years to more than ten years. The study involved participants making one drawing on paper with traditional drawing tools and one drawing on a digital drawing tablet. We then had the drawings rated for accuracy. Among other interesting results, we found that erasing occurs with greater frequency when participants work in a digital environment than in an analogue one and that, while there were significant tool use differences between the environments, those differences did not result in differences in the accuracy of final drawings indicating the adaptability of our participants using different means to achieve the same effect.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the natural way to draw a working plan for art study is available in a book collection and an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: the natural way to draw a working plan for art study is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our books collection spans in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the the natural way to draw a working plan for art study is universally compatible with any devices to read.
TL;DR: A growing number of studies have investigated visual processing of objects under more natural viewing conditions in which observers move their eyes to a stationary stimulus, visible previously in extra-foveal vision, during each trial.
Abstract: A key feature of visual processing in humans is the use of saccadic eye movements to look around the environment. Saccades are typically used to bring relevant information, which is glimpsed with extrafoveal vision, into the high-resolution fovea for further processing. With the exception of some unusual circumstances, such as the first fixation when walking into a room, our saccades are mainly guided based on this extrafoveal preview. In contrast, the majority of experimental studies in vision science have investigated "passive" behavioral and neural responses to suddenly appearing and often temporally or spatially unpredictable stimuli. As reviewed here, a growing number of studies have investigated visual processing of objects under more natural viewing conditions in which observers move their eyes to a stationary stimulus, visible previously in extrafoveal vision, during each trial. These studies demonstrate that the extrafoveal preview has a profound influence on visual processing of objects, both for behavior and neural activity. Starting from the preview effect in reading research we follow subsequent developments in vision research more generally and finally argue that taking such evidence seriously leads to a reconceptualization of the nature of human visual perception that incorporates the strong influence of prediction and action on sensory processing. We review theoretical perspectives on visual perception under naturalistic viewing conditions, including theories of active vision, active sensing, and sampling. Although the extrafoveal preview paradigm has already provided useful information about the timing of, and potential mechanisms for, the close interaction of the oculomotor and visual systems while reading and in natural scenes, the findings thus far also raise many new questions for future research.
TL;DR: The authors assessed eye gaze patterns between advanced and intermediate design sketchers and anticipated correlations between eye-gaze practices and sketching proficiency using Tobii 3 adjustable eye-tracking glasses and Tobii Pro data processing software.
Abstract: Abstract One difficulty with sketching pedagogy is the tendency to assess growth according to outcomes, as opposed to processes. We assessed eye gaze patterns between advanced and intermediate design sketchers and anticipated correlations between eye-gaze practices and sketching proficiency. Participants sketched two different objects using analogue materials, a potted plant from memory, and a MacBook from observation. The study utilised Tobii 3 adjustable eye-tracking glasses and Tobii Pro data processing software. Twenty-five design sketching students and six design sketching instructors participated in the study. Metrics measured include the quantity of reference line gazes, eye movement during line creation (targeting vs tracking), eye fixation duration, work checks per minute and subject gazes per minute. The results show a difference in gaze patterns between intermediate and advanced sketchers, both in terms of practice and consistency. Eye-tracking sketching behaviours has revealed a new understanding of how teaching gaze habits could lead to improved methods of design sketching instruction.