Other affiliations: Coventry University
Bio: Matteo Rubinato is an academic researcher from University of Sheffield. The author has contributed to research in topics: Flood myth & Smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 53 publications receiving 403 citations. Previous affiliations of Matteo Rubinato include Coventry University.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a critical review of existing sustainable approaches to urban flood management, by comparing UK practice with that in China and critically assessing whether lessons can be learnt from the Sponge City initiative.
Abstract: In recent decades, rapid urbanization has resulted in a growing urban population, transformed into regions of exceptional socio-economic value. By removing vegetation and soil, grading the land surface and saturating soil air content, urban developments are more likely to be flooded, which will be further exacerbated by an anticipated increase in the number of intense rainfall events, due to climate change. To date, data collected show that urban pluvial flood events are on the rise for both the UK and China. This paper presents a critical review of existing sustainable approaches to urban flood management, by comparing UK practice with that in China and critically assessing whether lessons can be learnt from the Sponge City initiative. The authors have identified a strategic research plan to ensure that the sponge city initiative can successfully respond to extreme climatic events and tackle pluvial flooding. Hence, this review suggests that future research should focus on (1) the development of a more localized rainfall model for the Chinese climate; (2) the role of retrofit SuDS (Sustainable Drainage Systems) in challenging water environments; (3) the development of a robust SuDS selection tool, ensuring that the most effective devices are installed, based on local factors; and (4) dissemination of current information, and increased understanding of maintenance and whole life-costing, alongside monitoring the success of sponge cities to increase the confidence of decision makers (5) the community engagement and education about sponge cities.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of the current flooding challenges that are affecting the UK and China and the actions that each country is undertaking to tackle these problems, focusing on learning from previous flooding events and which management methodologies are commonly used to reduce flood risk.
Abstract: Increased urbanisation, economic growth, and long-term climate variability have made both the UK and China more susceptible to urban and river flooding, putting people and property at increased risk. This paper presents a review of the current flooding challenges that are affecting the UK and China and the actions that each country is undertaking to tackle these problems. Particular emphases in this paper are laid on (1) learning from previous flooding events in the UK and China, and (2) which management methodologies are commonly used to reduce flood risk. The paper concludes with a strategic research plan suggested by the authors, together with proposed ways to overcome identified knowledge gaps in flood management. Recommendations briefly comprise the engagement of all stakeholders to ensure a proactive approach to land use planning, early warning systems, and water-sensitive urban design or redesign through more effective policy, multi-level flood models, and data driven models of water quantity and quality.
TL;DR: In this article, an instrumented physical model was designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow and the full range of sewer-tosurface and surface-to-sewertex flow conditions at the exchange zone were experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes.
Abstract: The linkage between sewer pipe flow and floodplain flow is recognised to induce an important source of uncertainty within two-dimensional (2D) urban flood models. This uncertainty is often attributed to the use of empirical hydraulic formulae (the one-dimensional (1D) weir and orifice steady flow equations) to achieve data-connectivity at the linking interface, which require the determination of discharge coefficients. Because of the paucity of high resolution localised data for this type of flows, the current understanding and quantification of a suitable range for those discharge coefficients is somewhat lacking. To fulfil this gap, this work presents the results acquired from an instrumented physical model designed to study the interaction between a pipe network flow and a floodplain flow. The full range of sewer-to-surface and surface-to-sewer flow conditions at the exchange zone are experimentally analysed in both steady and unsteady flow regimes. Steady state measured discharges are first analysed considering the relationship between the energy heads from the sewer flow and the floodplain flow; these results show that existing weir and orifice formulae are valid for describing the flow exchange for the present physical model, and yield new calibrated discharge coefficients for each of the flow conditions. The measured exchange discharges are also integrated (as a source term) within a 2D numerical flood model (a finite volume solver to the 2D Shallow Water Equations (SWE)), which is shown to reproduce the observed coefficients. This calibrated numerical model is then used to simulate a series of unsteady flow tests reproduced within the experimental facility. Results show that the numerical model overestimated the values of mean surcharge flow rate. This suggests the occurrence of additional head losses in unsteady conditions which are not currently accounted for within flood models calibrated in steady flow conditions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used a physical scale model to quantify flow conditions through a circular inlet during shallow steady state surface flow conditions and tested ten different inlet grate designs over a range of surface flow depths.
Abstract: Accurately quantifying the capacity of sewer inlets (such as manhole lids and gullies) to transfer water is important for many hydraulic flood modelling tools. The large range of inlet types and grate designs used in practice makes the representation of flow through and around such inlets challenging. This study uses a physical scale model to quantify flow conditions through a circular inlet during shallow steady state surface flow conditions. Ten different inlet grate designs have been tested over a range of surface flow depths. The resulting datasets have been used (i) to quantify weir and orifice discharge coefficients for commonly used flood modelling surface-sewer linking equations and (ii) to validate a 2D finite difference model in terms of simulated water depths around the inlet. Calibrated weir and orifice coefficients were observed to be in the range 0.115-0.372 and 0.349-2.038, respectively, and a relationship with grate geometrical parameters was observed. The results show an agreement between experimentally observed and numerically modelled flow depths but with larger discrepancies at higher flow exchange rates. Despite some discrepancies, the results provide improved confidence regarding the reliability of the numerical method to model surface to sewer flow under steady state hydraulic conditions.
TL;DR: A laboratory facility is described which will enable an urban flood model to be verified and generic approaches to be built and good agreement in terms of velocities which pass through the system is shown.
Abstract: Urban drainage systems are frequently analysed using hydraulic modelling software packages such as InfoWorks CS or MIKE-Urban. The use of such modelling tools allows the evaluation of sewer capacity and the likelihood and impact of pluvial flood events. Models can also be used to plan major investments such as increasing storage capacity or the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems. In spite of their widespread use, when applied to flooding the results of hydraulic models are rarely compared with field or laboratory (i.e. physical modelling) data. This is largely due to the time and expense required to collect reliable empirical data sets. This paper describes a laboratory facility which will enable an urban flood model to be verified and generic approaches to be built. Results are presented from the first phase of testing, which compares the sub-surface hydraulic performance of a physical scale model of a sewer network in Yorkshire, UK, with downscaled results from a calibrated 1D InfoWorks hydraulic model of the site. A variety of real rainfall events measured in the catchment over a period of 15 months (April 2008-June 2009) have been both hydraulically modelled and reproduced in the physical model. In most cases a comparison of flow hydrographs generated in both hydraulic and physical models shows good agreement in terms of velocities which pass through the system.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this article, the authors offer suggestions related to helping a student deal with bullying in schools, as well as creating an environment where that individual can easily return to the school community.
Abstract: This section offers suggestions related to helping a student deal with bullying in schools, as well as creating an environment where that individual can easily return to the school community. It also mentions the significance of the method 'Shared Responsibility' in dealing with the situation.
01 Jan 1993
TL;DR: Part I presents the statistical theory of turbulence, and Part 2 the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers.
Abstract: Part I presents the statistical theory of turbulence, and Part 2 the coherent structures in open-channel flows and boundary layers. The book is intended for advanced students and researchers in hydraulic research, fluid mechanics, environmental sciences and related disciplines. References Index.
01 Nov 2016
TL;DR: In this article, a book that can be recommended for new readers is dynamics and modelling of ocean waves, which is not kind of difficult book to read and can be read and understand by the new readers.
Abstract: Preparing the books to read every day is enjoyable for many people. However, there are still many people who also don't like reading. This is a problem. But, when you can support others to start reading, it will be better. One of the books that can be recommended for new readers is dynamics and modelling of ocean waves. This book is not kind of difficult book to read. It can be read and understand by the new readers.
University of California, Berkeley1, Stanford University2, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research3, University of Washington4, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne5, University of Colorado Boulder6, Nanjing University7, ETH Zurich8, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign9, Washington University in St. Louis10, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio11, University at Buffalo12, University of Michigan13, United States Environmental Protection Agency14
TL;DR: This critical review summarizes the photo-physics, -chemistry, and -biology that underpin sunlight-mediated inactivation, as well as the targets of damage and cellular responses to sunlight exposure, and illustrates how the environmental conditions can dramatically shift the inactivation rate of organisms.
Abstract: Health-relevant microorganisms present in natural surface waters and engineered treatment systems that are exposed to sunlight can be inactivated by a complex set of interacting mechanisms. The net impact of sunlight depends on the solar spectral irradiance, the susceptibility of the specific microorganism to each mechanism, and the water quality; inactivation rates can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the organism and environmental conditions. Natural organic matter (NOM) has a large influence, as it can attenuate radiation and thus decrease inactivation by endogenous mechanisms. Simultaneously NOM sensitizes the formation of reactive intermediates that can damage microorganisms via exogenous mechanisms. To accurately predict inactivation and design engineered systems that enhance solar inactivation, it is necessary to model these processes, although some details are not yet sufficiently well understood. In this critical review, we summarize the photo-physics, -chemistry, and -biology that underpin sunlight-mediated inactivation, as well as the targets of damage and cellular responses to sunlight exposure. Viruses that are not susceptible to exogenous inactivation are only inactivated if UVB wavelengths (280-320 nm) are present, such as in very clear, open waters or in containers that are transparent to UVB. Bacteria are susceptible to slightly longer wavelengths. Some viruses and bacteria (especially Gram-positive) are susceptible to exogenous inactivation, which can be initiated by visible as well as UV wavelengths. We review approaches to model sunlight-mediated inactivation and illustrate how the environmental conditions can dramatically shift the inactivation rate of organisms. The implications of this mechanistic understanding of solar inactivation are discussed for a range of applications, including recreational water quality, natural treatment systems, solar disinfection of drinking water (SODIS), and enhanced inactivation via the use of sensitizers and photocatalysts. Finally, priorities for future research are identified that will further our understanding of the key role that sunlight disinfection plays in natural systems and the potential to enhance this process in engineered systems.
01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, a model for the formation of stony-type debris flow fan is presented, and its verification by experiments is carried out using a single-phase continuum model.
Abstract: Preface Chapter 1 What is debris flow? Various sediment moving phenomena Definition of debris flow Classification and characteristics of debris flows Stony type debris flow Turbulent muddy type debris flow Viscous debris flow The significance of the mechanical classification of debris flows Classifications on the other points of view Chapter 2 Models for mechanics of flow 2.1 Models for solids and fluid mixture as the multi-phase flow 2.2 Single-phase continuum models 2.2.1 Visco-plastic fluid model 2.2.2 Dilatant fluid model 2.3 Two-phase continuum models (Mixture theory) 2.3.1 Stress equilibrium equations 2.3.2 Coulomb mixture theory (Quasi-static debris flows) 2.4 Theory for subaerial rapid granular flows 2.4.1 Particle collision stress 2.4.2 Kinetic stress 2.4.3 Skeletal stresses 2.4.4 Constitutive relations 2.4.5 Application of the theory to dry granular flow 2.4.6 Comparison with other constitutive relations for inertial range 2.5 Role of interstitial fluid in inertial debris flows 2.6 The mechanism of immature and turbulent muddy debris flows 2.6.1 Immature debris flow 2.6.2 Turbulent muddy debris flow 2.7 Generalized theory for inertial debris flows 2.7.1 Theoretical considerations 2.7.2 Verification by experimental data 2.7.3 Approximate solution for solids concentration and resistance to flow 2.8 Newtonian fluid model for viscous debris flow 2.8.1 Theoretical considerations 2.8.2 Verification by experiments Chapter 3 Initiation and development of debris flow Initiation and development of debris flow due to gully bed erosion The formation of incipient debris flow by the effects of surface water runoff The development of stony debris flow on sediment bed Verification of the theory by experiments Landslide-induced debris flow Model for the transformation into debris flow Mathematical model for the one-dimensional motion of an earth block Numerical simulation of earth block and debris flow motions across three-dimensional terrain Debris flow and flood flow induced by collapse of natural dam Formative conditions and shapes of natural dam Failure in entire channel width and the resulting debris flow Prediction of debris flow/flood flow induced by the overflow in partial width Chapter 4 Characteristics of fully developed flow Translation of debris flow surge and the shape of the snout The case of stony type debris flow The case of viscous type debris flow Boulder accumulation at the forefront of stony debris flow Various concepts for the mechanism The theory of Takahashi (1980) Competence to transport large boulders The cause of intermittency Debris flow around bend Routing of debris flow in the transferring reach Kinematic wave method Dynamic wave method Chapter 5 Processes and geomorphology of deposition One-dimensional stoppage/depositing processes of stony debris flow The arrival distance at the abrupt change in channel slope Topography of deposit formed at an abrupt slope change Numerical simulation of depositing process One-dimensional depositing process of turbulent muddy debris flow Formation of debris flow fan Description of the experimental results for stony debris flow and empirical presentations of the feature of debris flow fan Numerical simulation of fan formation process and its verification Numerical simulation of fan formation by turbulent debris flow Particle size distribution in the fan formed by stony debris flow General situations found in the field and experimental data Mathematical model for particle size distributions Erosion and deformation of debris flow fan Experiments for the process of erosion Model and its verification for the fan comprised of uniform material Model and its verification for the fan comprised of heterogeneous material Chapter 6 Debris flow disasters and their reproduction by computer simulations The rain storm disasters at Okuetsu Outline of the disaster The natural dam formation and the damages done by backwater Processes of destruction of the natural dam and damages downstream Horadani debris flow disasters Outline of the disaster Hydrograph estimation of the debris flow Reproduction of debris flow depositing area on the fan Collapse of the tailings dam at Stava, Northern Italy Outline of the disasters Reproduction of the debris flow in the Stava River and its verification Disasters caused by the eruption of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano Outline of the disasters Reproduction of the phenomena Sediment disasters in Venezuela Outline of the disasters Debris flow routing under an arbitrary rainfall condition Reproduction of debris flow hydrograph and others in the Camuri Grande River Reproduction of sediment flooding on the Camuri Grande fan Debris flow disasters at Atsumari, Hougawachi, Minamata City Outline of the disasters Reproduction of the processes of debris flow Chapter 7 Countermeasures for debris flow disasters Methods to prevent from debris flow generation Hillside works Drainage works Groundsill and bed girdle Debris flow control by closed type check dam Sediment depositing process behind check (sabo) dam Erosion process of the deposit behind sabo dam Effects of sediment control by sabo dam to downstream Debris flow control by open-type sabo dams Kinds and sediment checking mechanism of open-type sabo dams Blocking model of grid-type dam Model for debris flow controlling by grid-type dabo dam Determination of the optimum spacing and the optimum position to install Making debris flow harmless by channel works and training walls Design of countermeasures on the fan of the Camuri Grande River Management of debris flow by training dike Design debris flows for the countermeasure planning Method based on the previous data Prediction of total sediment runoff by field investigation Theoretical prediction of debris flow scale Debris flow prone ravines and hazardous area Debris flow prone ravine Hazardous zone by debris flow Prediction of debris flow occurrence by rainfall References Notations Index