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Matthew Sinclair

Bio: Matthew Sinclair is an academic researcher from Imperial College London. The author has contributed to research in topics: Segmentation & Image segmentation. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 63 publications receiving 2578 citations. Previous affiliations of Matthew Sinclair include Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust & King's College London.

Papers published on a yearly basis

Papers
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Posted ContentDOI
Spyridon Bakas1, Mauricio Reyes, Andras Jakab2, Stefan Bauer3  +435 moreInstitutions (111)
TL;DR: This study assesses the state-of-the-art machine learning methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018, and investigates the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks.
Abstract: Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies, with different degrees of aggressiveness, variable prognosis and various heterogeneous histologic sub-regions, i.e., peritumoral edematous/invaded tissue, necrotic core, active and non-enhancing core. This intrinsic heterogeneity is also portrayed in their radio-phenotype, as their sub-regions are depicted by varying intensity profiles disseminated across multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans, reflecting varying biological properties. Their heterogeneous shape, extent, and location are some of the factors that make these tumors difficult to resect, and in some cases inoperable. The amount of resected tumoris a factor also considered in longitudinal scans, when evaluating the apparent tumor for potential diagnosis of progression. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that accurate segmentation of the various tumor sub-regions can offer the basis for quantitative image analysis towards prediction of patient overall survival. This study assesses thestate-of-the-art machine learning (ML) methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018. Specifically, we focus on i) evaluating segmentations of the various glioma sub-regions in pre-operative mpMRI scans, ii) assessing potential tumor progression by virtue of longitudinal growth of tumor sub-regions, beyond use of the RECIST/RANO criteria, and iii) predicting the overall survival from pre-operative mpMRI scans of patients that underwent gross tota lresection. Finally, we investigate the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks, considering that apart from being diverse on each instance of the challenge, the multi-institutional mpMRI BraTS dataset has also been a continuously evolving/growing dataset.

1,165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated analysis method based on a fully convolutional network achieves a performance on par with human experts in analysing CMR images and deriving clinically relevant measures.
Abstract: Cardiovascular resonance (CMR) imaging is a standard imaging modality for assessing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the leading cause of death globally. CMR enables accurate quantification of the cardiac chamber volume, ejection fraction and myocardial mass, providing information for diagnosis and monitoring of CVDs. However, for years, clinicians have been relying on manual approaches for CMR image analysis, which is time consuming and prone to subjective errors. It is a major clinical challenge to automatically derive quantitative and clinically relevant information from CMR images. Deep neural networks have shown a great potential in image pattern recognition and segmentation for a variety of tasks. Here we demonstrate an automated analysis method for CMR images, which is based on a fully convolutional network (FCN). The network is trained and evaluated on a large-scale dataset from the UK Biobank, consisting of 4,875 subjects with 93,500 pixelwise annotated images. The performance of the method has been evaluated using a number of technical metrics, including the Dice metric, mean contour distance and Hausdorff distance, as well as clinically relevant measures, including left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and end-systolic volume (LVESV), LV mass (LVM); right ventricle (RV) end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) and end-systolic volume (RVESV). By combining FCN with a large-scale annotated dataset, the proposed automated method achieves a high performance in segmenting the LV and RV on short-axis CMR images and the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) on long-axis CMR images. On a short-axis image test set of 600 subjects, it achieves an average Dice metric of 0.94 for the LV cavity, 0.88 for the LV myocardium and 0.90 for the RV cavity. The mean absolute difference between automated measurement and manual measurement is 6.1 mL for LVEDV, 5.3 mL for LVESV, 6.9 gram for LVM, 8.5 mL for RVEDV and 7.2 mL for RVESV. On long-axis image test sets, the average Dice metric is 0.93 for the LA cavity (2-chamber view), 0.95 for the LA cavity (4-chamber view) and 0.96 for the RA cavity (4-chamber view). The performance is comparable to human inter-observer variability. We show that an automated method achieves a performance on par with human experts in analysing CMR images and deriving clinically relevant measures.

512 citations

Book ChapterDOI
10 Sep 2017
TL;DR: A semi-supervised learning approach, in which a segmentation network is trained from both labelled and unlabelled data, which outperforms a state-of-the-art multi-atlas segmentation method by a large margin and the speed is substantially faster.
Abstract: Training a fully convolutional network for pixel-wise (or voxel-wise) image segmentation normally requires a large number of training images with corresponding ground truth label maps. However, it is a challenge to obtain such a large training set in the medical imaging domain, where expert annotations are time-consuming and difficult to obtain. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning approach, in which a segmentation network is trained from both labelled and unlabelled data. The network parameters and the segmentations for the unlabelled data are alternately updated. We evaluate the method for short-axis cardiac MR image segmentation and it has demonstrated a high performance, outperforming a baseline supervised method. The mean Dice overlap metric is 0.92 for the left ventricular cavity, 0.85 for the myocardium and 0.89 for the right ventricular cavity. It also outperforms a state-of-the-art multi-atlas segmentation method by a large margin and the speed is substantially faster.

347 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper explores Ensembles of Multiple Models and Architectures (EMMA) for robust performance through aggregation of predictions from a wide range of methods to reduce the influence of the meta-parameters of individual models and the risk of overfitting the configuration to a particular database.
Abstract: Deep learning approaches such as convolutional neural nets have consistently outperformed previous methods on challenging tasks such as dense, semantic segmentation. However, the various proposed networks perform differently, with behaviour largely influenced by architectural choices and training settings. This paper explores Ensembles of Multiple Models and Architectures (EMMA) for robust performance through aggregation of predictions from a wide range of methods. The approach reduces the influence of the meta-parameters of individual models and the risk of overfitting the configuration to a particular database. EMMA can be seen as an unbiased, generic deep learning model which is shown to yield excellent performance, winning the first position in the BRATS 2017 competition among 50+ participating teams.

305 citations

Book ChapterDOI
14 Sep 2017
TL;DR: The Ensembles of Multiple Models and Architectures (EMMA) as mentioned in this paper was proposed to reduce the influence of the meta-parameters of individual models and the risk of overfitting the configuration to a particular database.
Abstract: Deep learning approaches such as convolutional neural nets have consistently outperformed previous methods on challenging tasks such as dense, semantic segmentation. However, the various proposed networks perform differently, with behaviour largely influenced by architectural choices and training settings. This paper explores Ensembles of Multiple Models and Architectures (EMMA) for robust performance through aggregation of predictions from a wide range of methods. The approach reduces the influence of the meta-parameters of individual models and the risk of overfitting the configuration to a particular database. EMMA can be seen as an unbiased, generic deep learning model which is shown to yield excellent performance, winning the first position in the BRATS 2017 competition among 50+ participating teams.

269 citations


Cited by
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Posted Content
TL;DR: A novel attention gate (AG) model for medical imaging that automatically learns to focus on target structures of varying shapes and sizes is proposed to eliminate the necessity of using explicit external tissue/organ localisation modules of cascaded convolutional neural networks (CNNs).
Abstract: We propose a novel attention gate (AG) model for medical imaging that automatically learns to focus on target structures of varying shapes and sizes. Models trained with AGs implicitly learn to suppress irrelevant regions in an input image while highlighting salient features useful for a specific task. This enables us to eliminate the necessity of using explicit external tissue/organ localisation modules of cascaded convolutional neural networks (CNNs). AGs can be easily integrated into standard CNN architectures such as the U-Net model with minimal computational overhead while increasing the model sensitivity and prediction accuracy. The proposed Attention U-Net architecture is evaluated on two large CT abdominal datasets for multi-class image segmentation. Experimental results show that AGs consistently improve the prediction performance of U-Net across different datasets and training sizes while preserving computational efficiency. The code for the proposed architecture is publicly available.

2,452 citations

Posted ContentDOI
Spyridon Bakas1, Mauricio Reyes, Andras Jakab2, Stefan Bauer3  +435 moreInstitutions (111)
TL;DR: This study assesses the state-of-the-art machine learning methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018, and investigates the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks.
Abstract: Gliomas are the most common primary brain malignancies, with different degrees of aggressiveness, variable prognosis and various heterogeneous histologic sub-regions, i.e., peritumoral edematous/invaded tissue, necrotic core, active and non-enhancing core. This intrinsic heterogeneity is also portrayed in their radio-phenotype, as their sub-regions are depicted by varying intensity profiles disseminated across multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) scans, reflecting varying biological properties. Their heterogeneous shape, extent, and location are some of the factors that make these tumors difficult to resect, and in some cases inoperable. The amount of resected tumoris a factor also considered in longitudinal scans, when evaluating the apparent tumor for potential diagnosis of progression. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that accurate segmentation of the various tumor sub-regions can offer the basis for quantitative image analysis towards prediction of patient overall survival. This study assesses thestate-of-the-art machine learning (ML) methods used for brain tumor image analysis in mpMRI scans, during the last seven instances of the International Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) challenge, i.e., 2012-2018. Specifically, we focus on i) evaluating segmentations of the various glioma sub-regions in pre-operative mpMRI scans, ii) assessing potential tumor progression by virtue of longitudinal growth of tumor sub-regions, beyond use of the RECIST/RANO criteria, and iii) predicting the overall survival from pre-operative mpMRI scans of patients that underwent gross tota lresection. Finally, we investigate the challenge of identifying the best ML algorithms for each of these tasks, considering that apart from being diverse on each instance of the challenge, the multi-institutional mpMRI BraTS dataset has also been a continuously evolving/growing dataset.

1,165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: How far state-of-the-art deep learning methods can go at assessing CMRI, i.e., segmenting the myocardium and the two ventricles as well as classifying pathologies is measured, to open the door to highly accurate and fully automatic analysis of cardiac CMRI.
Abstract: Delineation of the left ventricular cavity, myocardium, and right ventricle from cardiac magnetic resonance images (multi-slice 2-D cine MRI) is a common clinical task to establish diagnosis. The automation of the corresponding tasks has thus been the subject of intense research over the past decades. In this paper, we introduce the “Automatic Cardiac Diagnosis Challenge” dataset (ACDC), the largest publicly available and fully annotated dataset for the purpose of cardiac MRI (CMR) assessment. The dataset contains data from 150 multi-equipments CMRI recordings with reference measurements and classification from two medical experts. The overarching objective of this paper is to measure how far state-of-the-art deep learning methods can go at assessing CMRI, i.e., segmenting the myocardium and the two ventricles as well as classifying pathologies. In the wake of the 2017 MICCAI-ACDC challenge, we report results from deep learning methods provided by nine research groups for the segmentation task and four groups for the classification task. Results show that the best methods faithfully reproduce the expert analysis, leading to a mean value of 0.97 correlation score for the automatic extraction of clinical indices and an accuracy of 0.96 for automatic diagnosis. These results clearly open the door to highly accurate and fully automatic analysis of cardiac CMRI. We also identify scenarios for which deep learning methods are still failing. Both the dataset and detailed results are publicly available online, while the platform will remain open for new submissions.

1,056 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results show that AG models consistently improve the prediction performance of the base architectures across different datasets and training sizes while preserving computational efficiency.

966 citations