Other affiliations: Lund University, MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington ...read more
Bio: Matthias Meyer is an academic researcher from Max Planck Society. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Ancient DNA & Population. The author has an hindex of 72, co-authored 170 publication(s) receiving 31843 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Matthias Meyer include Lund University & MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Max Planck Society1, Broad Institute2, University of California, Berkeley3, European Bioinformatics Institute4, National Institutes of Health5, University of Massachusetts Medical School6, Spanish National Research Council7, University of Washington8, University of Montana9, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts10, University of Oviedo11, University of Bonn12, Emory University13, University College Cork14, Harvard University15
TL;DR: The genomic data suggest that Neandertals mixed with modern human ancestors some 120,000 years ago, leaving traces of Ne andertal DNA in contemporary humans, suggesting that gene flow from Neand Bertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
Abstract: Neandertals, the closest evolutionary relatives of present-day humans, lived in large parts of Europe and western Asia before disappearing 30,000 years ago. We present a draft sequence of the Neandertal genome composed of more than 4 billion nucleotides from three individuals. Comparisons of the Neandertal genome to the genomes of five present-day humans from different parts of the world identify a number of genomic regions that may have been affected by positive selection in ancestral modern humans, including genes involved in metabolism and in cognitive and skeletal development. We show that Neandertals shared more genetic variants with present-day humans in Eurasia than with present-day humans in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that gene flow from Neandertals into the ancestors of non-Africans occurred before the divergence of Eurasian groups from each other.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an in-depth study of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement factors and cross-sections, including several issues often overlooked, and demonstrate that SERS EFs as low as 107, as opposed to the figure of 1014 often claimed in the literature, are sufficient for SERS applications.
Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth study of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) enhancement factors (EFs) and cross-sections, including several issues often overlooked. In particular, various possible rigorous definitions of the SERS EFs are introduced and discussed in the context of SERS applications, such as analytical chemistry and single molecule SERS. These definitions highlight the importance of a careful characterization of the non-SERS cross-sections of the probes under consideration. This aspect is illustrated by experimental results for the non-SERS cross-sections of representative SERS probes along with average SERS EFs for the same probes. In addition, the accurate experimental determination of single molecule enhancement factors is tackled with two recently developed techniques, namely: bi-analyte SERS (BiASERS) and temperature-dependent SERS vibrational pumping. We demonstrate that SERS EFs as low as 107, as opposed to the figure of 1014 often claimed in the literature, are sufficient for...
Max Planck Society1, Massachusetts Institute of Technology2, Harvard University3, University of California, Berkeley4, University of Washington5, Bilkent University6, Chinese Academy of Sciences7, University of California, Santa Cruz8, University of Arizona9, Russian Academy of Sciences10, Howard Hughes Medical Institute11
TL;DR: The genomic sequence provides evidence for very low rates of heterozygosity in the Denisova, probably not because of recent inbreeding, but instead because of a small population size, and illuminates the relationships between humans and archaics, including Neandertals, and establishes a catalog of genetic changes within the human lineage.
Abstract: We present a DNA library preparation method that has allowed us to reconstruct a high-coverage (30×) genome sequence of a Denisovan, an extinct relative of Neandertals. The quality of this genome allows a direct estimation of Denisovan heterozygosity indicating that genetic diversity in these archaic hominins was extremely low. It also allows tentative dating of the specimen on the basis of “missing evolution” in its genome, detailed measurements of Denisovan and Neandertal admixture into present-day human populations, and the generation of a near-complete catalog of genetic changes that swept to high frequency in modern humans since their divergence from Denisovans.
01 Jun 2010-CSH Protocols
TL;DR: This protocol describes a fast and reliable method for the preparation of barcoded ("indexed") sequencing libraries for Illumina's Genome Analyzer platform, which avoids expensive library preparation kits and can be performed in a 96-well plate setup using multi-channel pipettes, requiring not more than two or three days of lab work.
Abstract: The large amount of DNA sequence data generated by high-throughput sequencing technologies often allows multiple samples to be sequenced in parallel on a single sequencing run. This is particularly true if subsets of the genome are studied rather than complete genomes. In recent years, target capture from sequencing libraries has largely replaced polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the preferred method of target enrichment. Parallelizing target capture and sequencing for multiple samples requires the incorporation of sample-specific barcodes into sequencing libraries, which is necessary to trace back the sample source of each sequence. This protocol describes a fast and reliable method for the preparation of barcoded ("indexed") sequencing libraries for Illumina's Genome Analyzer platform. The protocol avoids expensive commercial library preparation kits and can be performed in a 96-well plate setup using multi-channel pipettes, requiring not more than two or three days of lab work. Libraries can be prepared from any type of double-stranded DNA, even if present in subnanogram quantity.
Max Planck Society1, University of California, Berkeley2, Broad Institute3, Harvard University4, University of Washington5, National Institutes of Health6, University of California, Santa Cruz7, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich8, Emory University9, Fondation Jean Dausset Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain10, Allen Institute for Brain Science11, Russian Academy of Sciences12, Howard Hughes Medical Institute13
TL;DR: It is shown that interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene and a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans is established.
Abstract: We present a high-quality genome sequence of a Neanderthal woman from Siberia. We show that her parents were related at the level of half-siblings and that mating among close relatives was common among her recent ancestors. We also sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal from the Caucasus to low coverage. An analysis of the relationships and population history of available archaic genomes and 25 present-day human genomes shows that several gene flow events occurred among Neanderthals, Denisovans and early modern humans, possibly including gene flow into Denisovans from an unknown archaic group. Thus, interbreeding, albeit of low magnitude, occurred among many hominin groups in the Late Pleistocene. In addition, the high-quality Neanderthal genome allows us to establish a definitive list of substitutions that became fixed in modern humans after their separation from the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
Abstract: The relationship between the two estimates of genetic variation at the DNA level, namely the number of segregating sites and the average number of nucleotide differences estimated from pairwise comparison, is investigated. It is found that the correlation between these two estimates is large when the sample size is small, and decreases slowly as the sample size increases. Using the relationship obtained, a statistical method for testing the neutral mutation hypothesis is developed. This method needs only the data of DNA polymorphism, namely the genetic variation within population at the DNA level. A simple method of computer simulation, that was used in order to obtain the distribution of a new statistic developed, is also presented. Applying this statistical method to the five regions of DNA sequences in Drosophila melanogaster, it is found that large insertion/deletion (greater than 100 bp) is deleterious. It is suggested that the natural selection against large insertion/deletion is so weak that a large amount of variation is maintained in a population.
01 Jun 2012
TL;DR: SPAdes as mentioned in this paper is a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data).
Abstract: The lion's share of bacteria in various environments cannot be cloned in the laboratory and thus cannot be sequenced using existing technologies. A major goal of single-cell genomics is to complement gene-centric metagenomic data with whole-genome assemblies of uncultivated organisms. Assembly of single-cell data is challenging because of highly non-uniform read coverage as well as elevated levels of sequencing errors and chimeric reads. We describe SPAdes, a new assembler for both single-cell and standard (multicell) assembly, and demonstrate that it improves on the recently released E+V-SC assembler (specialized for single-cell data) and on popular assemblers Velvet and SoapDeNovo (for multicell data). SPAdes generates single-cell assemblies, providing information about genomes of uncultivatable bacteria that vastly exceeds what may be obtained via traditional metagenomics studies. SPAdes is available online ( http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades ). It is distributed as open source software.
01 May 2011-Nature Genetics
TL;DR: A unified analytic framework to discover and genotype variation among multiple samples simultaneously that achieves sensitive and specific results across five sequencing technologies and three distinct, canonical experimental designs is presented.
Abstract: Recent advances in sequencing technology make it possible to comprehensively catalogue genetic variation in population samples, creating a foundation for understanding human disease, ancestry and evolution. The amounts of raw data produced are prodigious and many computational steps are required to translate this output into high-quality variant calls. We present a unified analytic framework to discover and genotype variation among multiple samples simultaneously that achieves sensitive and specific results across five sequencing technologies and three distinct, canonical experimental designs. Our process includes (1) initial read mapping; (2) local realignment around indels; (3) base quality score recalibration; (4) SNP discovery and genotyping to find all potential variants; and (5) machine learning to separate true segregating variation from machine artifacts common to next-generation sequencing technologies. We discuss the application of these tools, instantiated in the Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK), to deep whole-genome, whole-exome capture, and multi-sample low-pass (~4×) 1000 Genomes Project datasets.
01 Oct 2008-Nature Biotechnology
TL;DR: Next-generation DNA sequencing has the potential to dramatically accelerate biological and biomedical research, by enabling the comprehensive analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and interactomes to become inexpensive, routine and widespread, rather than requiring significant production-scale efforts.
Abstract: DNA sequence represents a single format onto which a broad range of biological phenomena can be projected for high-throughput data collection. Over the past three years, massively parallel DNA sequencing platforms have become widely available, reducing the cost of DNA sequencing by over two orders of magnitude, and democratizing the field by putting the sequencing capacity of a major genome center in the hands of individual investigators. These new technologies are rapidly evolving, and near-term challenges include the development of robust protocols for generating sequencing libraries, building effective new approaches to data-analysis, and often a rethinking of experimental design. Next-generation DNA sequencing has the potential to dramatically accelerate biological and biomedical research, by enabling the comprehensive analysis of genomes, transcriptomes and interactomes to become inexpensive, routine and widespread, rather than requiring significant production-scale efforts.