Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Bio: Maumita Bandyopadhyay is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Genotoxicity & Comet assay. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 42 publications receiving 1189 citations. Previous affiliations of Maumita Bandyopadhyay include Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur.
TL;DR: The study confirms the genotoxic potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles in both plant and human lymphocytes.
Abstract: The environmental fate and behaviour of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) nanoparticles is a rapidly expanding area of research. There is a paucity of information regarding toxic effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles in plants and to certain extent in humans. The present study focuses on the effect of exposure of TiO(2) nanoparticles in two trophic levels, plant and human lymphocytes. The genotoxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles was evaluated using classical genotoxic endpoints, comet assay and DNA laddering technique. DNA damaging potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles in Allium cepa and Nicotiana tabacum as representative of plant system could be confirmed in the comet assay and DNA laddering experiments. In Allium micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations correlated with the reduction in root growth. We detected increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration at 4mM (0.9 μM) treatment dose of TiO(2) nanoparticles in Allium cepa. This indicated that lipid peroxidation could be involved as one of the mechanism leading to DNA damage. A comparative study of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles and bulk TiO(2) particles in human lymphocytes also reveal interesting results. While TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to be genotoxic at a low dose of 0.25 mM followed by a decrease in extent of DNA damage at higher concentrations; bulk TiO(2) particles reveal a more or less dose dependent effect, genotoxic only at dose 1.25 mM and above. The study thus confirms the genotoxic potential of TiO(2) nanoparticles in both plant and human lymphocytes.
TL;DR: A good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the biological applications employing Ag-np should be given special attention besides adapting the antimicrobial potential.
Abstract: The biocidal effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) has resulted in their incorporation into consumer products. While the population exposed to Ag-np continues to increase with ever new applications, Ag-np remains a controversial research area with regard to their toxicity in biological systems. Here a genotoxic and cytotoxic approach was employed to elucidate the activity of Ag-np in vitro and in vivo. Characterization of Ag-np using scanning electron microscopy revealed a size range of 90-180nm. Cytotoxic potential of Ag-np was evaluated in human lymphocytes via cell viability assay (Trypan blue dye exclusion method, MTT and WST assay). The uptake and incorporation of Ag-np into the lymphocytes was confirmed by flow cytometry. Additionally apoptosis (AnnexinV-FITC-PI staining) and DNA strand breaks (comet assay) in human lymphocytes revealed that Ag-np at concentration 25μg/ml can cause genotoxicity. In vivo experiments on plants (Allium cepa and Nicotiana tabacum) and animal (Swiss albino male mice) showed impairment of nuclear DNA. Induction of oxidative stress was also studied. The DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations raise the concern about the safety associated with applications of the Ag-np. A single ip administration of Ag-np gave a significant (P≤0.05) increase in the frequency of aberrant cells and Tail DNA percent at concentrations 10mg/kg body weight and above. Results of comet assay in A. cepa and N. tabacum demonstrated that the genotoxic effect of Ag-np was more pronounced in root than shoot/leaf of the plants. The present study indicated a good correlation between the in vitro and in vivo experiments. Therefore the biological applications employing Ag-np should be given special attention besides adapting the antimicrobial potential.
TL;DR: The results confirm the cyto-genotoxic effect of MWCNT in the plant system and simultaneously highlight the importance of this epigenetic study in nanoparticle toxicity.
Abstract: Advances in nanotechnology have led to the large-scale production of nanoparticles, which, in turn, increases the chances of environmental exposure. While humans (consumers/workers) are primarily at risk of being exposed to the adverse effect of nanoparticles, the effect on plants and other components of the environment cannot be ignored. The present work investigates the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and epigenetic (DNA methylation) effect of MWCNT on the plant system- Allium cepa. MWCNT uptake in root cells significantly altered cellular morphology. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial function were also compromised. The nanotubes induced significant DNA damage, micronucleus formation and chromosome aberration. DNA laddering assay revealed the formation of internucleosomal fragments, which is indicative of apoptotic cell death. This finding was confirmed by an accumulation of cells in the sub-G0 phase of the cell cycle. An increase in CpG methylation was observed using the isoschizomers MspI/HpaII. HPLC analysis of DNA samples revealed a significant increase in the levels of 5-methyl-deoxy-cytidine (5mdC). These results confirm the cyto-genotoxic effect of MWCNT in the plant system and simultaneously highlight the importance of this epigenetic study in nanoparticle toxicity.
TL;DR: Genotoxic responses such as chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breakages were studied in Allium cepa, human lymphocytes, mouse bone marrow cells and pBR322 plasmid DNA, and MWCNT may have significant impact on genomic activities.
Abstract: Increasing use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) necessitates an improved understanding of their potential impact on environment health. In the present study we evaluated the genotoxicity of MWCNT on plant and mammalian test systems. Genotoxic responses such as chromosomal aberrations and DNA strand breakages were studied in Allium cepa, human lymphocytes, mouse bone marrow cells and pBR322 plasmid DNA. Results showed that MWCNT could cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in Allium root cells that could be correlated with the internalization of MWCNT in the plant cells. In human lymphocytes significant genotoxic response was observed at the concentration 2 μg/ml. Higher concentrations led to a decrease in values of the tail DNA percent that may be due to the formation of crosslinks. Annexin V-FITC-PI staining indicated only a small percentage of cells were undergoing apoptosis. Genotoxic effects were shown by micronuclei (MN) frequencies in experiments on mouse bone marrow cells. In the cell free DNA system (plasmid pBR322), a strong correlation between DNA strand break and concentration was observed. Based on the findings of the present study MWCNT may have significant impact on genomic activities.
TL;DR: The first report of the presence of withasteroids in undifferentiated callus cultures of W. somnifera is reported, and this is the first detection of withaferin A in the roots of the plant.
Abstract: Developmental variability was introduced into Withania somnifera using genetic transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, with the aim of changing withasteroid production. Inoculation of W. somnifera with A. rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4 produced typical transformed root lines, transformed callus lines, and rooty callus lines with simultaneous root dedifferentiation and redifferentiation. These morphologically distinct transformed lines varied in T-DNA content, growth rates, and withasteroid accumulation. All of the lines with the typical transformed root morphology contained the TL T-DNA, and 90% of them carried the TR T-DNA, irrespective of the strain used for infection. Accumulation of withaferin A was maximum (0.44% dry weight) in the transformed root line WSKHRL-1. This is the first detection of withaferin A in the roots of W. somnifera. All of the rooty callus lines induced by strain A4 contained both the TL and the TR-DNAs. In contrast, 50% of the rooty-callus lines obtained with strain LBA 9402 contained only the TR T-DNA. All the rooty callus lines accumulated both withaferin A and withanolide D. The callusing lines induced by LBA 9402 lacked the TL T-DNA genes, while all the callusing lines induced by strain A4 contained the TL DNA. Four of these callus lines produced both withaferin A (0.15–0.21% dry weight) and withanolide D (0.08–0.11% dry weight), and they grew faster than the transformed root lines. This is the first report of the presence of withasteroids in undifferentiated callus cultures of W. somnifera.
TL;DR: itanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications and there is an enormous lack of epidemiological data regarding TiO2 NPs in spite of its increased production and use.
Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities for use in a wide range of applications. TiO2 NPs possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle (FP) analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Most of the literature cited here has focused on the respiratory system, showing the importance of inhalation as the primary route for TiO2 NP exposure in the workplace. TiO2 NPs may translocate to systemic organs from the lung and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) although the rate of translocation appears low. There have also been studies focusing on other potential routes of human exposure. Oral exposure mainly occurs through food products containing TiO2 NP-additives. Most dermal exposure studies, whether in vivo or in vitro, report that TiO2 NPs do not penetrate the stratum corneum (SC). In the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection can deliver TiO2 nanoparticulate carriers directly into the human body. Upon intravenous exposure, TiO2 NPs can induce pathological lesions of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain. We have also shown here that most of these effects may be due to the use of very high doses of TiO2 NPs. There is also an enormous lack of epidemiological data regarding TiO2 NPs in spite of its increased production and use. However, long-term inhalation studies in rats have reported lung tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicology of TiO2 NPs and points out areas where further information is needed.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: The uptake, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and risks of nanomaterials (NMs) for food crops are still not well understood and the possible biomagnification of NPs in the food chain is unknown.
Abstract: The uptake, bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and risks of nanomaterials (NMs) for food crops are still not well understood. Very few NMs and plant species have been studied, mainly at the very early growth stages of the plants. Most of the studies, except one with multiwalled carbon nanotubes performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and another with ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) on ryegrass, reported the effect of NMs on seed germination or 15-day-old seedlings. Very few references describe the biotransformation of NMs in food crops, and the possible transmission of the NMs to the next generation of plants exposed to NMs is unknown. The possible biomagnification of NPs in the food chain is also unknown.
TL;DR: Critical determinants that can affect the generation of ROS include size, shape, particle surface, surface positive charges, surface-containing groups, particle dissolution, metal ion release from nanometals and nanometal oxides, UV light activation, aggregation, mode of interaction with cells, inflammation, and pH of the medium.
Abstract: Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field in the 21st century, and the commercial use of nanomaterials for novel applications is increasing exponentially. To date, the scientific basis for the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of most manufactured nanomaterials are not understood. The mechanisms underlying the toxicity of nanomaterials have recently been studied intensively. An important mechanism of nanotoxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overproduction of ROS can induce oxidative stress, resulting in cells failing to maintain normal physiological redox-regulated functions. This in turn leads to DNA damage, unregulated cell signaling, change in cell motility, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and cancer initiation. There are critical determinants that can affect the generation of ROS. These critical determinants, discussed briefly here, include: size, shape, particle surface, surface positive charges, surface-containing groups, particle dissolution, metal ion release from nanometals and nanometal oxides, UV light activation, aggregation, mode of interaction with cells, inflammation, and pH of the medium.
TL;DR: In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in India.
Abstract: Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is one of the major environmental problems of Indian cities. Improper management of municipal solid waste (MSW) causes hazards to inhabitants. Various studies reveal that about 90% of MSW is disposed of unscientifically in open dumps and landfills, creating problems to public health and the environment. In the present study, an attempt has been made to provide a comprehensive review of the characteristics, generation, collection and transportation, disposal and treatment technologies of MSW practiced in India. The study pertaining to MSWM for Indian cities has been carried out to evaluate the current status and identify the major problems. Various adopted treatment technologies for MSW are critically reviewed, along with their advantages and limitations. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system.