Bio: Mawardi Rahmani is an academic researcher from Universiti Putra Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Friedelin & Xanthone. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 115 publication(s) receiving 1871 citation(s).
Topics: Friedelin, Xanthone, DPPH, Artocarpus, Micromelum minutum
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Apr 2009-Biological Control
TL;DR: Glass house trials indicated that induced host resistance was stimulated in okra plants treated with non-sterilized and filter-sterILized compost teas based on the detection of inducible resistance-related compounds, confirming the possible involvement of induced resistance.
Abstract: In vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to determine the mechanisms involved in suppression of Choanephora cucurbitarum the causal pathogen of wet rot disease of okra by using the tea produced from agro-waste such as rice straw (RST) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm composts. Non-sterilized, filter-sterilized and heat-sterilized compost teas were tested on the growth of C. cucurbitarum. The highest percentage of inhibition in conidial germination was obtained by both the non-sterilized RST and EFB compost tea with values of 84% and 79%, respectively. The inhibitory efficacy was reduced significantly ( P ⩽ 0.05) when the teas were subjected to millipore membrane filters or heat-sterilization. The mycelial growth of C. cucurbitarum was reduced by 100% in plates amended with both the non-sterilized compost tea. Light microscopy micrographs of mycelial samples of C. cucurbitarum exposed to non-sterilized RST and EFB compost tea showed alterations in mycelial morphology and lysis, resulting in inhibition in mycelial growth. Glass house trials indicated that induced host resistance was stimulated in okra plants treated with non-sterilized and filter-sterilized compost teas based on the detection of inducible resistance-related compounds. The mean values for inducible enzymes which have a role in disease resistance [peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL)] increased until day 8, which were significantly higher in okra plants pre-treated with non-sterilized tea in view of the high nutritive and microbiological properties. There was a further increase in inducible compounds when the pre-treated okra plants were challenged with C. cucurbitarum. Following the increase in total PO, PPO and PAL activities, development of Choanephora wet rot was delayed, confirming the possible involvement of induced resistance. However, resistance was not maintained since it decreased over time. This could be due to the highly stressed environment of the leaf surfaces which had a detrimental effect on the survival of the antagonists and subsequently affected the efficacy of compost tea. It was therefore suggested that plants should be sprayed at short intervals with the compost tea to sustain the suppressive effect.
15 Aug 2012-Phytomedicine
TL;DR: The results showed that PA possesses the characteristics of selectively inducing cell death of tumor cells as no inhibition was observed in non-tumorigenic cells even at 30 μg/ml.
Abstract: The plant Artocarpus obtusus is a tropical plant that belongs to the family Moraceae. In the present study a xanthone compound Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA) was isolated from this plant and the apoptosis mechanism was investigated. PA induced cytotoxicity was observed using MTT assay. High content screening (HCS) was used to observe the nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cytochrome c release. Reactive oxygen species formation was investigated on treated cells by using fluorescent analysis. Human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were performed to investigate the mechanism of cell death. In addition mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl2 were also checked using RT-PCR. Caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 were measured for their induction while treatment. The involvement of NF-κB was analyzed using HCS assay. The results showed that PA possesses the characteristics of selectively inducing cell death of tumor cells as no inhibition was observed in non-tumorigenic cells even at 30 μg/ml. Treatment of MCF7 cells with PA induced apoptosis with cell death-transducing signals, that regulate the MMP by down-regulation of Bcl2 and up-regulation of Bax, triggering the cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. The release of cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspases-9, then activates downstream executioner caspase-3/7 and consequently cleaved specific substrates leading to apoptotic changes. This form of apoptosis was found closely associated with the extrinsic pathway caspase (caspase-8) and inhibition of translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nucleus. The results demonstrated that PA induced apoptosis of MCF7 cells through NF-κB and Bcl2/Bax signaling pathways with the involvement of caspases.
12 Jun 2008-Scientia Horticulturae
TL;DR: Use of Trichoderma-enriched compost extracts would be more beneficial in environmentally friendly okra cultivation and may be used as an alternative to inorganic fertilizers/fungicides to enhance plant growth and reduce disease incidence subsequently, resulting in higher yield.
Abstract: An experiment was carried out to investigate the efficacy of rice straw and empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm compost extracts either fortified or unfortified with Trichoderma harzianum on morpho-physiological growth and occurrence of Choanephora wet rot of okra. Treatments tested were water (control) (T1), rice straw (RST) compost extract (T2), Trichoderma-enriched RST compost extract (T3), empty fruit bunch of oil palm compost extract (T4), Trichoderma-enriched EFB compost extract (T5), aqueous suspension of Trichoderma (T6), and a fungicide Dithane M-45® (2 g l−1 of water) (T7). The experimental results revealed significant variations amongst the treatments in respect of morphological characters, e.g. shoot length, tap root length, number of leaves per plant, and leaf area. The shoot and tap root length, number of leaves per plant, leaf area were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in Trichoderma-enriched RST compost extracts (T3) followed by Dithane M-45® (T7), Trichoderma-enriched EFB extracts (T5), RST (T2), EFB (T4) and aqueous suspension of T. harzianum (T6) in both Choanephora inoculated and uninoculated (control) plots. Similarly, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content were higher in plants receiving Trichoderma-enriched RST compost extracts (T3) with 76.2% reduction in Choanephora wet rot incidence when compared with rest of the treatments. These experimental results revealed that morpho-physiological characters of okra could be modified by the application of Trichoderma-enriched compost extracts. This suggests that use of Trichoderma-enriched compost extracts would be more beneficial in environmentally friendly okra cultivation and may be used as an alternative to inorganic fertilizers/fungicides to enhance plant growth and reduce disease incidence subsequently, resulting in higher yield.
15 Aug 2013-Food Chemistry
TL;DR: The ethyl acetate and methanol bark extracts of Melicope glabra were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching/linoleic acid system and exhibited strong inhibition against the DPPH radical.
Abstract: The ethyl acetate and methanol bark extracts of Melicope glabra were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and β-carotene bleaching/linoleic acid system. Both extracts exhibited strong inhibition against the DPPH radical (IC50 values of 24.81 and 13.01 μg ml(-1), respectively) and strong antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay. Both samples were found to have high phenolic content with values of 39 and 44 mg GAE/g as indicated by Follin-Ciocalteau's reagent. Antioxidant TLC assay-guided isolation on the methanol extract led to the isolation of a new pyranocoumarin, glabranin (1), umbelliferone (2), scopoletin (3) and sesamin (4), and their structures were determined by spectroscopy. Compounds (1-3) showed significant activities on DPPH free radical with the IC50 of 240.20, 810.02 and 413.19 μg ml(-1), respectively. However, in β-carotene bleaching assay, sesamin (4) showed higher inhibitory activity (1 mg ml(-1), 95%) than glabranin (1) (1 mg ml(-1), 74%), whilst umbelliferone (2) and scopoletin (3) were slightly pro-oxidant.
01 Oct 2006-Natural Product Research
TL;DR: All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated very good toxicity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti.
Abstract: Studies on the stem of Garcinia mangostana have led to the isolation of one new xanthone mangosharin (1) (2,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone) and six other prenylated xanthones, alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), garcinone D (4), 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (5), mangostanol (6) and 5,9-dihydroxy-8- methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano-[3,2-b]-xanthene-6-one (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and by comparison with previous studies. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated very good toxicity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. This article reports the isolation and identification of the above compounds as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. These bioassay data have not been reported before.
01 Dec 1994-Phytochemistry
TL;DR: In this paper, a compilation of the 13C NMR data of a selected variety of naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids, arranged skeletonwise, is provided.
Abstract: A compilation of the13C NMR data of a selected variety of naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoids, arranged skeletonwise, is provided. A bri
05 Apr 2012-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products as mentioned in this paper is a dictionary of the economic products of India that was published during the years 1889-99 by the Government of India.
Abstract: IT may occasion some surprise to those men of science who are ill-acquainted with India, and who so frequently express the view that Governments are unappreciative of the importance of science to learn that as far back as 1886 the Government of India arranged for Dr. George (later Sir George) Watt, professor of botany in the Presidency College, Calcutta, to prepare a "Dictionary of the Economic Products of India". The six volumes of this standard work were published during the years 1889-99. In 1908 Sir George Watt published a condensed version, "The Commercial Products of India". Whatever the defects of these 'dictionaries', they have been of inestimable value to all interested in Indian natural products. The Wealth of India A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. Raw Materials, Vol. 1. Pp. xxvii+254+39 plates. 15 rupees ; 24s. Industrial Products, Part 1. Pp. xii+182+8 plates. 8 rupees ; 12s. (New Delhi : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948.)
01 Oct 2008-Food and Chemical Toxicology
TL;DR: Findings of beneficial properties of GML's extracts and xanthones isolated from this plant so far are summarized.
Abstract: Muchas plantas tropicales tienen interesantes actividades biologicas con potenciales aplicaciones terapeuticas. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (GML) pertenece a la familia de las Guttiferae y es nombrada "la reina de las frutas". Se cultiva en la selva tropical de algunas naciones del sudeste asiatico como Indonesia, Malasia, Sri Lanka, Filipinas y Tailandia. Las personas de estos paises han utilizado el pericarpio de la GML como medicina tradicional para el tratamiento del dolor abdominal, la diarrea, la disenteria, la herida infectada, la supuracion y la ulcera cronica. Estudios experimentales han demostrado que los extractos de GML tienen actividades antioxidantes, antitumorales, antialergicas, antiinflamatorias, antibacterianas y antivirales. El pericarpio de GML es una fuente de xantonas y otras sustancias bioactivas. Las xantonas preniladas aisladas de GML han sido ampliamente estudiadas; Algunos miembros de estos compuestos poseen propiedades antioxidantes, antitumorales, antialergicas, antiinflamatorias, antibacterianas, antifungicas y antivirales. Las xantonas se han aislado del pericarpio, de la fruta entera, del duramen y de las hojas. Las xantonas mas estudiadas son alfa, beta y gamma-mangostinas, garcinona E, 8-desoxigartanina y gartanina. El objetivo de esta revision es resumir los hallazgos de propiedades beneficiosas de extractos de GML y xantonas aisladas de esta planta hasta el momento.
10 May 2017-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: This review aims to highlight the recent evidence of chalcone as a privileged scaffold in medicinal chemistry and is expected to be a comprehensive, authoritative, and critical review of the chal cone template to the chemistry community.
Abstract: Privileged structures have been widely used as an effective template in medicinal chemistry for drug discovery. Chalcone is a common simple scaffold found in many naturally occurring compounds. Many chalcone derivatives have also been prepared due to their convenient synthesis. These natural products and synthetic compounds have shown numerous interesting biological activities with clinical potentials against various diseases. This review aims to highlight the recent evidence of chalcone as a privileged scaffold in medicinal chemistry. Multiple aspects of chalcone will be summarized herein, including the isolation of novel chalcone derivatives, the development of new synthetic methodologies, the evaluation of their biological properties, and the exploration of the mechanisms of action as well as target identification. This review is expected to be a comprehensive, authoritative, and critical review of the chalcone template to the chemistry community.