Other affiliations: University of Birmingham, Royal College of Psychiatrists, Archer ...read more
Bio: Max Birchwood is an academic researcher from University of Warwick. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Mental health & Psychological intervention. The author has an hindex of 65, co-authored 259 publication(s) receiving 18491 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Max Birchwood include University of Birmingham & Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 2013-JAMA Psychiatry
TL;DR: The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course and provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it.
Abstract: Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses.
TL;DR: Results from three samples show that the Social Functioning Scale is reliable, valid, sensitive and responsive to change.
Abstract: Social functioning as an outcome variable in family interventions with schizophrenic patients has been a relatively neglected area. The requirements of a scale of social functioning to measure the efficacy of family interventions include: the measurement of skill/behaviour relevant to the impairments and the demography of this group; the ability to yield considerable information with an economy of clinical time; and the establishment of 'comparative' need through comparison between subscales and with appropriate reference groups. Results from three samples show that the Social Functioning Scale is reliable, valid, sensitive and responsive to change.
TL;DR: It is shown that highly disparate relationships with voices-fear, reassurance, engagement and resistance-reflect vital differences in beliefs about the voices, and how these core beliefs about voices may become a new target for treatment.
Abstract: We offer provisional support for a new cognitive approach to understanding and treating drug-resistant auditory hallucinations in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Study 1 emphasises the relevance of the cognitive model by detailing the behavioural, cognitive and affective responses to persistent voices in 26 patients, demonstrating that highly disparate relationships with voices-fear, reassurance, engagement and resistance-reflect vital differences in beliefs about the voices. All patients viewed their voices as omnipotent and omniscient. However, beliefs about the voice's identity and meaning led to voices being construed as either 'benevolent' or 'malevolent'. Patients provided cogent reasons (evidence) for these beliefs which were not always linked to voice content; indeed in 31% of cases beliefs were incongruous with content, as would be anticipated by a cognitive model. Without fail, voices believed to be malevolent provoked fear and were resisted and those perceived as benevolent were courted. However, in the case of imperative voices, the primary influence on whether commands were obeyed was the severity of the command. Study 2 illustrates how these core beliefs about voices may become a new target for treatment. We describe the application of an adapted version of cognitive therapy (CT) to the treatment of four patients' drug-resistant voices. Where patients were on medication, this was held constant while beliefs about the voices' omnipotence, identity, and purpose were systematically disputed and tested. Large and stable reductions in conviction in these beliefs were reported, and these were associated with reduced distress, increased adaptive behaviour, and unexpectedly, a fall in voice activity. These changes were corroborated by the responsible psychiatrists. Collectively, the cases attest to the promise of CT as a treatment for auditory hallucinations.
TL;DR: Prospective studies of first-episode schizophrenics support the critical period hypothesis and indicate that progression, where it occurs, does so early in the disorder, with patients reaching a relatively stable plateau within 2 years of the first psychotic episode.
Abstract: Background We consider the evidence for the proposition that the early phase of psychosis (including the period of untreated psychosis) is a critical period' in which (a) long-term outcome is predictable, and (b) biological, psychological and psychosocial influences are developing and show maximum plasticity. Method First-episode prospective studies, predictors of outcome and the genesis of patients' key appraisals of their psychosis are reviewed. Results The data support the notion of the ‘plateau effect’, first coined by Tom McGlashan, which suggested that where deterioration occurs, it does so aggressively in the first 2-3 years; and that critical psychosocial influences, including family and psychological reactions to psychosis and psychiatric services, develop during this period. Conclusions The early phase of psychosis presents important opportunities for secondary prevention. We outline a prototype of intervention appropriate to the critical period. The data challenge the widely held assumption that first-episode psychosis is a benign illness posing little risk.
TL;DR: A differential predictive clinical model of transition to first-episode psychosis is developed that identified an increased risk of psychosis with appropriate prognostic accuracy in a sample of help-seeking patients.
Abstract: Context Indicated prevention is currently regarded as the most promising strategy to attenuate, delay, or even avert psychosis. Existing criteria need improvement in terms of specificity and individual risk assessment to allow for better targeted and earlier interventions. Objective To develop a differential predictive clinical model of transition to first-episode psychosis. Design Prospective multicenter, naturalistic field study with a total follow-up time of 18 months. Setting Six early-detection outpatient centers in Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, and England. Participants Two hundred forty-five help-seeking patients in a putatively prodromal state of psychosis according to either ultra-high-risk (UHR) criteria or the basic symptom–based criterion cognitive disturbances (COGDIS). Main Outcome Measure Incidence of transition to psychosis. Results At 18-month follow-up, the incidence rate for transition to psychosis was 19%. Combining UHR and COGDIS yielded the best sensitivity. A prediction model was developed and included positive symptoms, bizarre thinking, sleep disturbances, a schizotypal disorder, level of functioning in the past year, and years of education. With a positive likelihood ratio of 19.9, an area under the curve of 80.8%, and a positive predictive value of 83.3%, diagnostic accuracy was excellent. A 4-level prognostic index further classifying the general risk of the whole sample predicted instantaneous incidence rates of up to 85% and allowed for an estimation of time to transition. Conclusions The prediction model identified an increased risk of psychosis with appropriate prognostic accuracy in our sample. A 2-step risk assessment is proposed, with UHR and cognitive disturbance criteria serving as first-step criteria for general risk and the prognostic index as a second-step tool for further risk classification of each patient. This strategy will allow clinicians to target preventive measures and will support efforts to unveil the biological and environmental mechanisms underlying progression to psychosis.
01 Jun 1994-Journal of Pediatric Nursing
TL;DR: Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality.
Abstract: In undergoing this life, many people always try to do and get the best. New knowledge, experience, lesson, and everything that can improve the life will be done. However, many people sometimes feel confused to get those things. Feeling the limited of experience and sources to be better is one of the lacks to own. However, there is a very simple thing that can be done. This is what your teacher always manoeuvres you to do this one. Yeah, reading is the answer. Reading a book as this basics of qualitative research grounded theory procedures and techniques and other references can enrich your life quality. How can it be?
20 Jan 2017
TL;DR: The Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis as mentioned in this paper, a practical guide through qualitative analysis through quantitative analysis, is a good starting point for such a study.
Abstract: การวจยเชงคณภาพ เปนเครองมอสำคญอยางหนงสำหรบทำความเขาใจสงคมและพฤตกรรมมนษย การวจยแบบการสรางทฤษฎจากขอมล กเปนหนงในหลายระเบยบวธการวจยเชงคณภาพทกำลงไดรบความสนใจ และเปนทนยมเพมสงขนเรอยๆ จากนกวชาการ และนกวจยในสาขาสงคมศาสตร และศาสตรอนๆ เชน พฤตกรรมศาสตร สงคมวทยา สาธารณสขศาสตร พยาบาลศาสตร จตวทยาสงคม ศกษาศาสตร รฐศาสตร และสารสนเทศศกษา ดงนน หนงสอเรอง “ConstructingGrounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis” หรอ “การสรางทฤษฎจากขอมล:แนวทางการปฏบตผานการวเคราะหเชงคณภาพ” จะชวยใหผอานมความรความเขาใจถงพฒนาการของปฏบตการวจยแบบสรางทฤษฎจากขอมล ตลอดจนแนวทาง และกระบวนการปฏบตการวจยอยางเปนระบบ จงเปนหนงสอทควรคาแกการอานโดยเฉพาะนกวจยรนใหม เพอเปนแนวทางในการนำความรความเขาใจไประยกตในงานวจยของตน อกทงนกวจยผเชยวชาญสามารถอานเพอขยายมโนทศนดานวจยใหกวางขวางขน
TL;DR: The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.
Abstract: Without a complete published description of interventions, clinicians and patients cannot reliably implement interventions that are shown to be useful, and other researchers cannot replicate or build on research findings. The quality of description of interventions in publications, however, is remarkably poor. To improve the completeness of reporting, and ultimately the replicability, of interventions, an international group of experts and stakeholders developed the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. The process involved a literature review for relevant checklists and research, a Delphi survey of an international panel of experts to guide item selection, and a face to face panel meeting. The resultant 12 item TIDieR checklist (brief name, why, what (materials), what (procedure), who provided, how, where, when and how much, tailoring, modifications, how well (planned), how well (actual)) is an extension of the CONSORT 2010 statement (item 5) and the SPIRIT 2013 statement (item 11). While the emphasis of the checklist is on trials, the guidance is intended to apply across all evaluative study designs. This paper presents the TIDieR checklist and guide, with an explanation and elaboration for each item, and examples of good reporting. The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.
TL;DR: A heuristic framework for linking the psychological and biological in psychosis is provided and it is proposed that a dysregulated, hyperdopaminergic state, at a "brain" level of description and analysis, leads to an aberrant assignment of salience to the elements of one's experience, at an "mind" level.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The clinical hallmark of schizophrenia is psychosis. The objective of this overview is to link the neurobiology (brain), the phenomenological experience (mind), and pharmacological aspects of psychosis-in-schizophrenia into a unitary framework. METHOD: Current ideas regarding the neurobiology and phenomenology of psychosis and schizophrenia, the role of dopamine, and the mechanism of action of antipsychotic medication were integrated to develop this framework. RESULTS: A central role of dopamine is to mediate the “salience” of environmental events and internal representations. It is proposed that a dysregulated, hyperdopaminergic state, at a “brain” level of description and analysis, leads to an aberrant assignment of salience to the elements of one’s experience, at a “mind” level. Delusions are a cognitive effort by the patient to make sense of these aberrantly salient experiences, whereas hallucinations reflect a direct experience of the aberrant salience of internal representations. Antipsyc...