Md. Abul Kalam
Other affiliations: Helen Keller International, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, University of Kuala Lumpur
Bio: Md. Abul Kalam is an academic researcher from University of Malaya. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diesel fuel & Biodiesel. The author has an hindex of 70, co-authored 256 publications receiving 14828 citations. Previous affiliations of Md. Abul Kalam include Helen Keller International & University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduced some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel, such as Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllus (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica, Linum usitatissimum (Linseed)
Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results showed that in most cases, NOx emission is increased, and HC, CO, and PM emissions are decreases. It was reported that a diesel engine could be successfully run and could give excellent performance and the study revealed the most effective regulated emissions on the application of karanja, mahua, rubber seed, and tobacco biodiesel and their blends as fuel in a CI engine.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of anticorrosion additive in biodiesel (from palm oil) on diesel engines, performance, emissions and wear characteristics was evaluated and the results of this investigation will be used to find compatible lubricant for biodiesel engine.
Abstract: If the agricultural products market is limited and much of agricultural land is not utilized as is the case in many countries in the world at present, then agriculture should be directed to the production of new alternative products. The land can be used to produce non-food products including biodiesels for the domestic energy market to diminish imports. Much research has been done on biodiesels over the last 20 yr after the oil crisis in 1973. At present, concern about environmental regulations has been the major reason to look for alternative fuel. A significant level in terms of physico-chemical properties of biodiesel has been obtained but there is a lack of full or partial replacement of fossil fuel that needs to be discussed. This paper presents the experimental results carried out to evaluate the effect of anticorrosion additive in biodiesel (from palm oil) on diesel engines, performance, emissions and wear characteristics. This biodiesel is defined as the methyl ester of palm oil also known as palm oil diesel. The results of this investigation will be used to find compatible lubricant for biodiesel engine.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss comparative physicochemical properties of ethanol and gasoline and discuss different fuel composition, engine parameter and engine modification effects on NOx formation as well as mathematical approach for NOx prediction using ethanol.
Abstract: The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and anthropogenic CO2 emission require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with gasoline provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Ethanol is widely used as an alternative fuel or an effective additive of gasoline due to the advantage of its high octane number and its self-sustaining concept, which can be supplied regardless of the fossil fuel. As a result, vast study has been carried out to study its effects on engine performance and emission. The first part of this article discusses prospect of fuel ethanol as a gasoline substitute. Then it discusses comparative physicochemical properties of ethanol and gasoline. The slight differences in properties between ethanol and gasoline fuels are enough to create considerable change to combustion system as well as behaviors of SI engines. These effects lead to several complex and interacting mechanisms, which make it difficult to identify the fundamentals of how ethanol affects NOx emission. After that, general NOx forming mechanisms are discussed to create a fundamental basis for further discussion. Finally, the article discusses different fuel composition, engine parameter and engine modification effects on NOx formation as well as mathematical approach for NOx prediction using ethanol.
TL;DR: In this paper, the impacts of biodiesel combustion on NOx emissions and their reduction approaches in diesel engines are reviewed and the results of reduction approaches of the NOx emission implies, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and retarded injection timing are effective as well as low cost techniques than others.
Abstract: Increasing energy demand and environment concerns have prompted an evolution of alternative fuel sources. As an alternative fuel source, biodiesel is attractive because it reduces engine emissions. However, biodiesel produces higher NOx emissions compared to ordinary diesel fuel. Previous researches have established many factors that cause biodiesel to produce elevated NOx emissions. This study reviews the impacts of biodiesel combustion on NOx emissions and their reduction approaches in diesel engines. The first part of this study recaps the NOx formation mechanisms for understanding the kinetics behind the NOx forming reactions. The second part describes the factors affecting on NOx emissions. This paper established that higher NOx emissions are produced for biodiesel combustion which influenced by several factors such as physicochemical properties and molecular structure of biodiesel, adiabatic flame temperature, ignition delay time, injection timing and engine load conditions etc. The final section discusses on the reduction of NOx emissions from biodiesel fuelled engines for both pre and post combustion techniques. The results of reduction approaches of the NOx emissions implies, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and retarded injection timing are effective as well as low cost techniques than others. Between these two techniques, EGR reduces the NOx emissions at 5–25% EGR rate adequately in biofuelled engine by controlling oxygen content and combustion peak temperature with slightly decreasing HC and CO emissions. However this technique shows few penalties on smoke and PM emissions as well as brake specific fuel consumption if not perfectly optimized.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors summarized the literature from most recent articles on nanoparticles as a liquid fuel additive and discussed the effect of dispersion of several nanoparticles on the enhancement in the performance characteristics and reduction in emission of a CI engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends.
Abstract: Biodiesel is an unsurpassed alternative fuel source intended to extend the value to fossil fuels, and the longevity and cleanliness of diesel engines. It reduces the dependence on the foreign fuels and reduces the greenhouse gas emissions due to its closed carbon cycle. The plentiful advantages of biodiesel are overcome by few drawbacks such as the increase in the nitrogen oxide emission, its incompatibility with cold weather conditions, and the regular intervals of engine parts replacement such as fuel filters, fuel tanks and fuel lines due to clogging. There is a further scope for enhancement in fuel properties and to overcome the drawbacks by addition of nanoparticles as fuel additives. Recent researches on fuel additives indicated the inclusion of nano-sized particles (metallic, non-metallic, oxygenated, organic and combination) with diesel-biodiesel fuel emulsion. The results achieved demonstrated an improvement in the thermophysical properties, enhancement in the heat transfer rate, and stabilization of the fuel mixtures. Also, there was an increase in the engine performance parameters and reduction in the exhaust emissions depending on the dosage of nanofluid additives. This review paper includes the methods for preparation of nanofluids, the stability enhancement of nanofluids by various technique, several characterization methods to find the chemical bonding, nanoparticle shape, and size, dispersion of nano-additives in liquid fuel, the health effects, and applications of nanoparticles in the automotive industry. The numerous literature reviewed had some degree of indistinct and inconsistent outcomes. The experimental results from the various researchers were not generalized to reach a general accord regarding this innovative approach of fuel adulteration. The present work summarizes the literature from most recent articles on nanoparticles as a liquid fuel additive. The effect of dispersion of several nanoparticles on the enhancement in the performance characteristics and reduction in emission of a CI engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel blends are discussed. The further scope suggests the development of an economically sustainable and feasible nanoparticle additive for diesel and biodiesel fuel. Nevertheless, few obstacles and challenges which have been recognized in this review must be addressed before they can be fully put into practice in the industrial applications.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: In this paper, a review has been done on scope of CO2 mitigation through solar cooker, water heater, dryer, biofuel, improved cookstove and by hydrogen, which provides an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources.
Abstract: Renewable technologies are considered as clean sources of energy and optimal use of these resources minimize environmental impacts, produce minimum secondary wastes and are sustainable based on current and future economic and social societal needs. Sun is the source of all energies. The primary forms of solar energy are heat and light. Sunlight and heat are transformed and absorbed by the environment in a multitude of ways. Some of these transformations result in renewable energy flows such as biomass and wind energy. Renewable energy technologies provide an excellent opportunity for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and reducing global warming through substituting conventional energy sources. In this article a review has been done on scope of CO2 mitigation through solar cooker, water heater, dryer, biofuel, improved cookstoves and by hydrogen.
TL;DR: A triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.
Abstract: The aim of this work was the study of the influence of the raw material composition on biodiesel quality, using a transesterification reaction. Thus, ten refined vegetable oils were transesterificated using potassium methoxide as catalyst and standard reaction conditions (reaction time, 1 h; weight of catalyst, 1 wt.% of initial oil weight; molar ratio methanol/oil, 6/1; reaction temperature, 60 °C). Biodiesel quality was tested according to the standard [UNE-EN 14214, 2003. Automotive fuels. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. Requirements and test methods]. Some critical parameters like oxidation stability, cetane number, iodine value and cold filter plugging point were correlated with the methyl ester composition of each biodiesel, according to two parameters: degree of unsaturation and long chain saturated factor. Finally, a triangular graph based on the composition in monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters was built in order to predict the critical parameters of European standard for whatever biodiesel, known its composition.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production.
Abstract: The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and consumption of fossil fuels have led to a reduction in petroleum reserves. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain region of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum oil. Hence it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. Although vegetative oils can be fuel for diesel engines, but their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of its various derivatives. Among the different possible sources, fatty acid methyl esters, known as Biodiesel fuel derived from triglycerides (vegetable oil and animal fates) by transesterification with methanol, present the promising alternative substitute to diesel fuels and have received the most attention now a day. The main advantages of using Biodiesel are its renewability, better quality exhaust gas emission, its biodegradability and the organic carbon present in it is photosynthetic in origin. It does not contribute to a rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequently to the green house effect. This paper reviews the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production.
01 Dec 1988
TL;DR: In this paper, the basic processes in Atomization are discussed, and the drop size distributions of sprays are discussed.Preface 1.General Considerations 2.Basic Processes of Atomization 3.Drop Size Distributions of Sprays 4.Atomizers 5.Flow in Atomizers 6.AtOMizer Performance 7.External Spray Charcteristics 8.Drop Evaporation 9.Drop Sizing Methods Index
Abstract: Preface 1.General Considerations 2.Basic Processes in Atomization 3.Drop Size Distributions of Sprays 4.Atomizers 5.Flow in Atomizers 6.Atomizer Performance 7.External Spray Charcteristics 8.Drop Evaporation 9.Drop Sizing Methods Index