Bio: Merle Taimalu is an academic researcher from University of Tartu. The author has contributed to research in topics: Teacher education & Technology integration. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 17 publications receiving 228 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the impact of the beliefs and professional knowledge of teacher educators on technology integration and find that only knowledge of technology and its integration had a direct effect on the integration of technology.
Abstract: In addition to knowledge, beliefs also impact the integration of technology. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of the beliefs and professional knowledge of teacher educators on technology integration. The sample consisted of 54 teacher educators. The principle results indicated that only knowledge of technology and its integration had a direct effect on technology integration. Beliefs about the value of technology influenced technology integration indirectly and pedagogical knowledge had a significant total effect on technology integration. These results could be useful for in-service training for teacher educators and professional development programmes for university teaching staff.
TL;DR: Reflection is defined as "the process of critically assessing the content, process, or premise(s) of our efforts to interpret and give meaning to an experience" as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: 1. Introduction It is generally acknowledged that reflective teaching and reflective practices play an important role in teacher education. Reflection is also an important part in teachers' professional behaviour and relevant in their professional development. Various authors have pointed out the usefulness and necessity of reflection. For example, Killeavy and Moloney (2010) highlighted the ability to reflect on practice as the basis for learning. In addition, personal experiences are important in the teachers' development today, and reflection is one method that supports such development (Shoffner 2009); the ability to reflect evolves out of our experiences both as a professional and a person (Scanlan and Chernomas 1997). In many countries teacher education programmes operate with the notion that reflection is a critically important characteristic of an effective teacher. In Estonia, the ability to reflect on teaching practice is also one of the standards for teaching. Although reflection is key to the development of a professional teacher, several authors have indicated that it is not well defined and this can cause problems in understanding the meaning of reflection (e.g. Kreber 2005, Maaranen and Krokfors 2007). Reflection, however, can be used more deliberately if we realize its meaning and impact on our personal and professional development (Scanlan and Chernomas 1997). In this paper, we initially examine the definition of and theories about reflection because it is important to know how the process of reflection works in practice. Secondly, we conducted an overview of certain instruments used to measure reflection and examined their validity and reliability. The starting point for defining reflection is usually problematic (Akbari et al. 2010), but historically, Dewey is acknowledged as one of the originators of the concept of reflection in the twentieth century (Hatton and Smith 1995). In most articles dealing with reflective teaching, the roots of the term are traced back to John Dewey (1933). According to Dewey (1933:9), reflection is "active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it". Furthermore, reflection needs communication to formulate experience (Dewey 1930). Scanlan and Chernomas (1997) assert that reflection is a mental process that we all use in our everyday lives. However, reflection can be further developed for specific professional purposes. If we can become more aware of what reflection entails then we should be able to label more accurately the mental processes of reflection and further develop other reflective skills for professional purposes. Gibbs (1988) argued that without reflecting, received experience may be forgotten or the learning potential lost. His model of reflection contains six stages: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan. Mezirow (1991: 104) claimed that "reflection is the process of critically assessing the content, process, or premise(s) of our efforts to interpret and give meaning to an experience". It includes thoughtful action with reflection or premise reflection. Premise reflection leads to critical reflection--this means more fully developed perspectives on meaning. Reflective learning can be divided into confirmative or transformative learning. Transformative learning produces new or transformed meaning while reflection focuses on premises. Therefore, reflection does not only involve a simple awareness of our experiences. Non-reflective action may be habitual action that takes place outside of focal awareness or thoughtful action with higher cognitive processes (Mezirow 1991). Discussing the topic of reflection may be based on other well-known theories. For example, the five-factor personality theory describes five basic personality factors (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and intellect/autonomy) (Hendriks et al. …
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce two interview methods for studying young children's fears, applied in separate studies with representative samples of children aged 5-6 in Finland (N = 222) and Estonia (n = 117).
Abstract: The article introduces two interview methods for studying young children' fears, applied in separate studies with representative samples of children aged 5-6 in Finland (N = 222) and Estonia (N = 117) The semi-structured interview was based on the question, `What things are you afraid of?' The article describes the interview scheme as well as the interview process The picture-aided interview was designed on the basis of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children - Revised (FSSC-R) The semistructured interviews showed that young children are capable of expressing a much wider range of fears (eg television programmes) than had been assumed earlier The picture-aided interviews revealed more fears related to social relations than did the semi-structured interviews Both methods are recommended for research use
01 Jun 2005
TL;DR: For instance, Labone et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the teacher efficacy beliefs of practicing and student teachers in Tartu, Estonia, by using the Teacher Efficacy Scale developed by Gibson and Dembo (1984) and identified major factors which influence a teacher's sense of efficacy.
Abstract: 1 Introduction Who is a good teacher? This is a question that researchers have long tried to answer Up to the 1970s, the corresponding studies have been mainly positivistic Researchers observed teachers' behaviour and tried to find relationships between teachers' behaviour and students' achievement But good practical and professional skills alone do not ,,make" a good teacher During the last decades the attention of researchers has moved from the studies of teachers' external behaviour to the differences in teachers' thinking, beliefs and attitudes Researchers now think that subjective beliefs have a big influence on a person's behaviour, because a belief in her or his own ability determines how this person thinks and behaves One of the best-documented attributes of effective teachers is a strong sense of efficacy (Henson 2001) Teacher efficacy beliefs, and particularly their development, can be seen as one aspect of a teacher's professional development, and which has been one of the most frequently studied issues in teacher education research The knowledge of teacher professional development regularities, including teacher efficacy beliefs, are necessary for understanding the developmental possibilities of student and practicing teachers Researchers have found strong relationships between teachers' efficacy beliefs, their behaviour and students' achievements (eg Gibson and Dembo 1984, Goddard and Hoy 2001) An important research finding is that teacher efficacy beliefs do not only positively correlate with cognitive learning outcomes but also with the learner's other important learning outcomes A teacher with high self-efficacy beliefs promotes students' motivation, students' self-esteem, self-direction, pro-social attitudes and positive attitudes toward school (Pitkaniemi 2002: 135) Teachers and teacher educators should be aware that a teacher's success is not only a matter of mastering teaching techniques and methods, but it is also influenced by subjective powers In our study, we have investigated the efficacy beliefs of practicing and student teachers in Tartu, Estonia, by using the Teacher Efficacy Scale developed by Gibson and Dembo (1984) More specifically, this study examines the concept of teacher efficacy beliefs, analyses research findings of Estonian teachers' efficacy beliefs, and identifies major factors which influence a teacher's sense of efficacy 11 The concept of teacher efficacy The construct of teacher efficacy has been the subject of numerous studies for approximately 25 years (Labone 2004) In the early 1970s, teacher efficacy was conceptualised as teachers' general capacity to influence student performance (van den Berg 2002:588) Since then, the concept has been continuously developed and now is frequently interpreted in the context of Bandura's (1977) concept of self-efficacy Adjusted to the teaching profession, it emphasises the importance of teachers' beliefs in their own ability to bring about students' learning In more recent works, the notion of teacher efficacy is considered as a collection of beliefs, attitudes and emotions that basically guide the work of individuals and pertain to not only the achievement of students but also to cooperation with colleagues and others involved in the school (van den Berg 2002:588) The formation of teacher efficacy beliefs can be explained in the light of Rotter's theory of internal and external locus of control, Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, and many other concepts of motivation Generally, teacher efficacy beliefs are considered as composed of two relatively independent components: personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy (Deemer and Minke 1999, Gibson and Dembo 1984:570) Personal teaching efficacy involves teachers' beliefs in their own capabilities to bring about students' learning This is the belief of an individual teacher that s/he possesses the skills necessary to bring about positive changes in students (Gibson and Dembo 1984:570) …
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used children themselves as informants and fear as an indicator of insecurity from cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives to study children's well-being, and found that the prevalence of children's self-reported fears has generally increased during the ten years, especially among the Estonian children.
Abstract: Our main interest in this paper is in studying children’s well-being by using children themselves as informants and fear as an indicator of insecurity from cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives. More specifically our paper documents the changes in the content and prevalence of children’s fears in two neighboring countries, Finland and Estonia, during the last decade. The study was carried out in 1993 and replicated in 2002/2003 in both countries with the random samples of total number of 420 five to six-year-old children (in Estonia 115 in 1993 and 91 in 2002; in Finland 105 and 109, respectively). For both countries the decade in question was a period of social, political and economic transition including post-socialist transformation in Estonia. Especially informationalization and globalization had a profound impact on the everyday life of parents and children. The increase of insecurity among children in both countries was expected. Children’s fears were investigated by means of an individual semi-structured and picture-aided interview. The most important findings are: the prevalence of children’s self-reported fears has generally increased during the ten years, especially among the Estonian children. The most significant increase was observed in both countries in fears of imagination-related things including television-related fears, fears of imagined creatures and of nightmares parallel to children’s increased media-exposure in daily life. Despite the increase of␣general welfare in both countries our results suggest the opposite tendency among young children; decrease of safety and increase of insecurity. The level of children’s insecurity was higher in Estonian than in Finland at both times. It is noteworthy that some fears of young children are ‚universal’ (fear of getting lost, fear of darkness, fear of being alone), while some fears are more context dependent (television-induced fears, fear of strange people). Young children proved to be competent informants of their condition and well able to provide essential and invaluable information about their problems and well-being.
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: The authors explored the potential of blogs as learning spaces for students in the higher education sector, and concluded that blogging has the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning in higher education.
Abstract: 'Blogging' - a contraction of the term 'web logging' - is perhaps best described as a form of micro-publishing. Easy to use, from any Internet connection point, blogging has become firmly established as a web based communications tool. The blogging phenomenon has evolved from its early origin as a medium for the publication of simple, online personal diaries, to the latest disruptive technology, the 'killer app' that has the capacity to engage people in collaborative activity, knowledge sharing, reflection and debate (Hiler, 2003). Many blogs have large and dedicated readerships, and blog clusters have formed linking fellow bloggers in accordance with their common interests. This paper explores the potential of blogs as learning spaces for students in the higher education sector. It refers to the nascent literature on the subject, explores methods for using blogs for educational purposes in university courses (eg. Harvard Law School), and records the experience of the Brisbane Graduate School of Business at Queensland University of Technology, with its 'MBA blog'. The paper concludes that blogging has the potential to be a transformational technology for teaching and learning.
TL;DR: The authors argued that any progress is going to be made in the humanization of the mentally retarded, it will come not from devising new answers to old questions but rather from asking a whole new set of questions.
Abstract: ordinary schools, any neighborhood or city or setting where windows are barred, where people are in fear, where each man seeks his escape (as each may find his escape in terms that are not always happy or healthy). He admits that he is more helpful on analysis than solution. He raises a lot of serious questions. If any progress is going to be made in the humanization of the mentally retarded, it will come not from devising new answers to old questions but rather from asking a whole new set of questions, for example:
TL;DR: Graue and Walsh as discussed by the authors studied children in context: Theories, Methods, and Ethics, 1998, p. 270 pp. M. E. Graue and D. Walsh.
Abstract: Studying Children in Context: Theories, Methods, and Ethics. M. Elizabeth Graue and Daniel J. Walsh. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1998. 270 pp.
TL;DR: Reading is a hobby to open the knowledge windows and concomitant with the technology development, many companies serve the e-book or book in soft file.
Abstract: Reading is a hobby to open the knowledge windows. Besides, it can provide the inspiration and spirit to face this life. By this way, concomitant with the technology development, many companies serve the e-book or book in soft file. The system of this book of course will be much easier. No worry to forget bringing the normality and pathology in childhood assessments of development book. You can open the device and get the book by on-line.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the experiences of young people in a variety of decision-making processes whilst in the care of the local authority, identifying the development of feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and poor confidence that have followed the lack of opportunities made available to them to make decisions about their own lives.
Abstract: The extent to which young people are involved in legal decisionmaking depends on assumptions and perceptions about their ability to participate in decision-making in general. This paper draws on research with four young people, looking at their experiences of involvement in a variety of decision-making processes whilst in the care of the local authority. Through narratives, games and other activities, the thoughts and emotions of the four young people are explored, identifying the development of feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and poor confidence that have followed the lack of opportunities made available to them to make decisions about their own lives. The efficacy and tension of corporate parenting is also explored with suggestions from the participants on how the care system could be constructed differently to facilitate their voice and that of much younger children than themselves. Thus, the debate becomes one of adult ability and preparedness to involve young people in decisions about their own lives, rather than whether they are able to participate effectively.