Micah S. Muscolino
Other affiliations: Saint Mary's College of California, Georgetown University, University of Oxford ...read more
Bio: Micah S. Muscolino is an academic researcher from University of California, San Diego. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): China & Soil conservation. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 15 publication(s) receiving 113 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Micah S. Muscolino include Saint Mary's College of California & Georgetown University.
Topics: China, Soil conservation, Fishing, Famine, Displaced person
15 Dec 2014
TL;DR: The ecology of displacement: social and environmental effects of refugee migration 6. Reconstruction and revolution Conclusion as discussed by the authors The land needs the people, the people need the land: beginnings of postconflict recovery 7.
Abstract: Introduction 1. A militarized river: the 1938 Yellow River flood and its aftermath 2. Stories of survival: refugee migration and ecological adaptation 3. Military metabolism and the Henan famine of 1942-3 4. Against the flow: hydraulic instability and ecological exhaustion 5. The ecology of displacement: social and environmental effects of refugee migration 6. The land needs the people, the people need the land: beginnings of postconflict recovery 7. Reconstruction and revolution Conclusion.
31 Dec 2009
TL;DR: Zhang et al. as mentioned in this paper described migration, markets, and marine life under the late Qing under social organization and fishery regulation, 1800-1911 and developing the ocean: expansion and reform, 1904-1929.
Abstract: Abbreviations Introduction 1 Migration, Markets, and Marine Life Under the Late Qing 2 Social Organization and Fishery Regulation, 1800-1911 3 Developing the Ocean: Expansion and Reform, 1904-1929 4 Fishing Wars I: Sino-Japanese Disputes, 1924-1931 5 Fishing Wars II: The Cuttlefish Feud, 1932-1934 6 Fishing Wars III: The Zhejiang-Jiangsu Border Conflict, 1935-1945 Continuities and Discontinuities Chinese Characters Notes Works Cited Index
01 May 2010-The Journal of Asian Studies
TL;DR: This article investigated the relationship between refugee flight and environmental change during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45 through a study of land reclamation projects in Shaanxi's Huanglongshan region.
Abstract: This article investigates relationships between refugee flight and environmental change during the Sino-Japanese War of 1937–45 through a study of land reclamation projects in Shaanxi's Huanglongshan region. During the conflict with Japan, China's Nationalist government resettled thousands of refugees who fled war-induced natural disasters in Henan to Huanglongshan to reclaim uncultivated wastelands. Land reclamation reflected an ongoing militarization of China's environment, as political leaders looked to land reclamation to provide relief for refugees, further economic mobilization by exploiting untapped natural resources, and foster an ethos of dedication and self-sacrifice for the nation. Unrestrained land clearance decimated forests that had returned to Huanglongshan's hillsides since its abandonment during the rebellions of the late Qing. By compelling displaced people to cultivate marginal lands, war also threatened the health of refugees by exposing them to endemic disease. Yet the militarizing logic that motivated these reclamation initiatives continued to reshape China's natural landscape long after the Sino-Japanese War ended.
01 Apr 2008-Environmental History
TL;DR: In the early 1920s, the convergence of ecological transformations that originated in China and Japan gave rise to protracted disputes over yellow croaker fishing grounds off of China's coast as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Beginning in the 1920s, the convergence of ecological transformations that originated in China and Japan gave rise to protracted disputes over yellow croaker fishing grounds off of China's ...
01 Apr 2020-Environmental History
TL;DR: Based on local archival documents and fieldwork conducted in Shaanxi Province's Baishui County, the authors examines how large-scale water and soil conservation campaigns launched in North China were conducted.
Abstract: Based on local archival documents and fieldwork conducted in Shaanxi Province’s Baishui County, this article examines how large-scale water and soil conservation campaigns launched in North...
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper described the history of the Hai River Basin of North China and its role in the development of the modern world economy, and provided a comprehensive overview of the food market in North China.
Abstract: @fmct:Contents @toc4:List of Tables iii List of Illustrations iii Acknowledgments iii @toc2:Introduction 1 Chapter 1: \"Heaven, Earth, and Man\" in North China 000 @toc3:History of the Hai River System 000 The Hai River Basin of North China 000 Climate of the Hai River Basin 000 Historical Climate 000 Floods, Droughts, and Disasters 000 Local Records and Social Consequences 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 2. Managing the Rivers: Emperors as Engineers 000 @toc3:Kangxi and the Yongding River 000 Yongzheng, Prince Yi, and a Comprehensive Plan 000 Qianlong and Routinization 000 Jiaqing: Heroic Hydraulics 000 Daoguang: Earnest Efforts 000 Fin-de-siecle Floods 000 Local Initiatives 000 Emperors, Bureaucrats, and Ecology 000 @toc2:Chapter 3. Population, Agriculture, and Food 000 @toc3:Population and Land 000 Land and Agriculture Under Manchu Rule 000 Agriculture: Grains and Other Crops 000 Cropping Patterns and Yields 000 Diet and Standard of Living 000 Not Quite a Malthusian Tale 000 @toc2:Chapter 4. Food and Prices 000 @toc3:Long-Term Price Trends 000 Multicropping and Seasonality 000 Natural Crises and Harvests 000 The Copper Coin-Silver Exchange Rate 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 5. Provisioning Beijing 000 @toc3:Beijing and Grain Tribute 000 Grain Stipends: Distribution, Timing, and Sales 000 Pingtiao and the Beijing Market 000 Social Unrest, Pingtiao, and Soup Kitchens 000 Markets, Merchants, and Gendarmerie 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2: Chapter 6. Storing Grain: Granaries as Solution and Problem 000 @toc3:Granaries in Chinese History 000 Kangxi-Yongzheng Origins 000 Ever-Normal Granaries in the Qianlong Period 000 Ever-Normal Granaries in the Jiaqing and Daoguang Periods 000 Community and Charity Granaries 000 External Grain Supplies 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 7. Markets and Prices 000 @toc3:Market Integration Within Zhili 000 Price Integration with Other Regions 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 8. Famine Relief: The High Qing Model 000 @toc3:Famine Investigation 000 General Relief 000 Grain Versus Cash/Millet Versus Sorghum 000 Soup Kitchens 000 Pingtiao 000 Tax Remissions 000 Shelters and Famine Refugees 000 17431744: Famine Relief Model 000 1759: Disaster Without Relief 000 17611763 and Later: Relief With and Without Disaster 000 Overall Evaluation 000 @toc2:Chapter 9. Famine Relief: Nineteenth-Century Devolution 000 @toc3:The 1801 Flood 000 The 18131814 Crisis 000 Daoguang Crises and Corruption 000 Midcentury Political Crisis 000 The 18711872 Floods and the Li Hongzhang Era 000 The 18761879 North China Famine 000 The 18901895 Floods 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 10. The \"Land of Famine,\" 19001949 000 @toc3:1917 and Later Floods 000 The 19201921 Drought and International Aid 000 The 19281930 North China Drought and National Crisis 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 11. Rural Crisis and Economic Change, 1900 1949 000 @toc3:Famine and Poverty 000 Changes in the Economy 000 Local Experiences 000 Economic Trends 000 Japanese Aggression, Communist Insurgency, and Rural Poverty 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Chapter 12. Food and Famine Under Socialist Rule, 19491990s 000 @toc3:Population, Agriculture, and Grain in Hebei 000 Socialism and Subsistence in Hebei, 19491958 and Beyond 000 The Great Leap Famine, 19581961 000 Controlling Nature 000 Unleashing the Market 000 Regulating the Grain Market 000 Conclusion 000 @toc2:Conclusion 000 @toc4:Reign Periods of the Qing Dynasty (16441911) and Use of Dates 000 Weights and Measures 000 Glossary (Chinese Characters) 000 @toc4:Appendices 000 @toc3:Appendix 1: Prefectures and Counties in Zhili Province in Qing Period 000 Appendix 2: Data 000 Appendix 3: Quantitative Methods 000 @toc4:Abbreviations Used in Notes 000 Notes 000 Bibliography 000 Gazetteers List 000 Index 000
TL;DR: The field of environmental history has been a hot topic in the field of history since 1970 as discussed by the authors, with the focus mainly on the work of professional historians, but because environmental history is pursued by many varieties of scholars, including archeologists, geographers, and others.
Abstract: Absract This article reviews the state and evolution of the field of environmental history since about 1970. It focuses chiefly on the work of professional historians, but because environmental history is pursued by many varieties of scholars, it occasionally discusses the work of archeologists, geographers, and others. It offers a working definition of the field and an account of its origins, development, and institutionalization from the 1970s until 2010. It briefly surveys the literature on several world regions, concentrating most heavily on South Asia and Latin America, where environmental history at present has grown especially lively. It considers the prominence of Americanists (that is, historians of the United States, not the same thing as Americans) in the field and how that prominence is now waning. It reviews the utility of environmental history for historians, sketches some of the critiques of environmental history, and comments upon some signal findings of recent years.
01 Jun 2016-Marine Policy
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors examined China's fisheries policy coherence and found that about 95 percent of Chinese fisheries subsidies were harmful to sustainability, including fuel subsidies, and concluded that China's subsidies policies did not align with the country's stated goals in fisheries management.
Abstract: As the world's largest producer of wild catch, China's fishing activities have a significant impact on the sustainability of not only domestic but also global fish stocks. China also provides substantial subsidies to its fishing operations. In 2013, the Chinese central government spent RMB 40.383 billion (or $6.5 billion) on fisheries subsidies. Most of this amount—94 percent—was in the form of fuel subsidies. This study asked whether China's subsidies policies align with the country's stated goals in fisheries management by examining China's fisheries policy coherence, and found that about 95 percent of Chinese fisheries subsidies were harmful to sustainability.
21 Feb 2012-Landscape Research
TL;DR: The authors assesses literature on militarized landscapes (sites that are partially or fully mobilized to achieve military aims) and argue that alongside increasing public and media attention, militarised landscapes are a burgeoning area of inquiry in a variety of disciplines, including geography, history, earth sciences and archaeology.
Abstract: This article critically assesses literature on militarized landscapes (sites that are partially or fully mobilized to achieve military aims). It argues that alongside increasing public and media attention, militarized landscapes are a burgeoning area of inquiry in a variety of disciplines, including geography, history, earth sciences and archaeology. To allow for an analysis of different disciplinary perspectives around common themes, this article is structured around the areas of preparing for war, the battlefield, and the ‘homefront’. In light of the research identified in this article, it is no longer possible to treat war and landscape as separate realms. Instead, the challenge is to explore how war and landscapes reciprocally reproduce each other across time and space. The common themes that exist across the scholarly disciplines also indicate the potential for extensive interdisciplinary research into militarized landscapes.