Author

# Micha Sharir

Other affiliations: New York University, Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Princeton University ...read more

Bio: Micha Sharir is an academic researcher from Tel Aviv University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Upper and lower bounds & Computational geometry. The author has an hindex of 81, co-authored 668 publication(s) receiving 29189 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Micha Sharir include New York University & Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya.

Topics: Upper and lower bounds, Computational geometry, Disjoint sets, Voronoi diagram, Discrete geometry

##### Papers

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01 Jan 1995

TL;DR: A close to linear bound on the maximum length of Davenport--Schinzel sequences enable us to derive sharp bounds on the combinatorial structure underlying various geometric problems, which in turn yields efficient algorithms for these problems.

Abstract: An $(n,s)$ Davenport--Schinzel sequence, for positive integers $n$ and $s$, is a sequence composed of $n$ symbols with the properties that no two adjacent elements are equal, and that it does not contain, as a (possibly non-contiguous) subsequence, any alternation $a \cdots b \cdots a \cdots b \cdots$ of length $s+2$ between two distinct symbols $a$ and $b$. The close relationship between Davenport--Schinzel sequences and the combinatorial structure of lower envelopes of collections of functions make the sequences very attractive, because a wide variety of geometric problems can be formulated in terms of lower envelopes. A close to linear bound on the maximum length of Davenport--Schinzel sequences enable us to derive sharp bounds on the combinatorial structure underlying various geometric problems, which in turn yields efficient algorithms for these problems. This paper gives a comprehensive survey on the theory of Davenport--Schinzel sequences and their geometric applications.

1,037 citations

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Abstract: This paper continues the discussion, begun in J. Schwartz and M. Sharir [Comm. Pure Appl. Math., in press], of the following problem, which arises in robotics: Given a collection of bodies B, which may be hinged, i.e., may allow internal motion around various joints, and given a region bounded by a collection of polyhedral or other simple walls, decide whether or not there exists a continuous motion connecting two given positions and orientations of the whole collection of bodies. We show that this problem can be handled by appropriate refinements of methods introduced by A. Tarski [''A Decision Method for Elementary Algebra and Geometry,'' 2nd ed., Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, 1951] and G. Collins [in ''Second GI Conference on Automata Theory and Formal Languages,'' Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 33, pp. 134-183, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975], which lead to algorithms for this problem which are polynomial in the geometric complexity of the problem for each fixed number of degrees of freedom (but exponential in the number of degrees of freedom). Our method, which is also related to a technique outlined by J. Reif [in ''Proceedings, 20th Symposium on the Foundations of Computer Science,'' pp. 421-427, 1979], also gives a general (but not polynomial time) procedure for calculating all of the homology groups of an arbitrary real algebraic variety. Various algorithmic issues concerning computations with algebraic numbers, which are required in the algorithms presented in this paper, are also reviewed.

889 citations

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14 Sep 2011634 citations

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Leonidas J. Guibas

^{1}, John Hershberger^{1}, Daniel Leven^{2}, Micha Sharir^{2}+3 more•Institutions (5)TL;DR: Given a triangulation of a simple polygonP, linear-time algorithms for solving a collection of problems concerning shortest paths and visibility withinP are presented.

Abstract: Given a triangulation of a simple polygonP, we present linear-time algorithms for solving a collection of problems concerning shortest paths and visibility withinP. These problems include calculation of the collection of all shortest paths insideP from a given source vertexS to all the other vertices ofP, calculation of the subpolygon ofP consisting of points that are visible from a given segment withinP, preprocessingP for fast "ray shooting" queries, and several related problems.

523 citations

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TL;DR: A new randomized incremental algorithm for the construction of planar Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations is given that takes expected timeO(nℝgn) and spaceO( n), and is eminently practical to implement.

Abstract: In this paper we give a new randomized incremental algorithm for the construction of planar Voronoi diagrams and Delaunay triangulations. The new algorithm is more “on-line” than earlier similar methods, takes expected timeO(nℝgn) and spaceO(n), and is eminently practical to implement. The analysis of the algorithm is also interesting in its own right and can serve as a model for many similar questions in both two and three dimensions. Finally we demonstrate how this approach for constructing Voronoi diagrams obviates the need for building a separate point-location structure for nearest-neighbor queries.

505 citations

##### Cited by

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Abstract: The authors describe a general-purpose, representation-independent method for the accurate and computationally efficient registration of 3-D shapes including free-form curves and surfaces. The method handles the full six degrees of freedom and is based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, which requires only a procedure to find the closest point on a geometric entity to a given point. The ICP algorithm always converges monotonically to the nearest local minimum of a mean-square distance metric, and the rate of convergence is rapid during the first few iterations. Therefore, given an adequate set of initial rotations and translations for a particular class of objects with a certain level of 'shape complexity', one can globally minimize the mean-square distance metric over all six degrees of freedom by testing each initial registration. One important application of this method is to register sensed data from unfixtured rigid objects with an ideal geometric model, prior to shape inspection. Experimental results show the capabilities of the registration algorithm on point sets, curves, and surfaces. >

15,673 citations

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22 Mar 1994Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Brief History. Multifingered Hands and Dextrous Manipulation. Outline of the Book. Bibliography. RIGID BODY MOTION: Rigid Body Transformations. Rotational Motion in R3. Rigid Motion in R3. Velocity of a Rigid Body. Wrenches and Reciprocal Screws. MANIPULATOR KINEMATICS: Introduction. Forward Kinematics. Inverse Kinematics. The Manipulator Jacobian. Redundant and Parallel Manipulators. ROBOT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL: Introduction. Lagrange's Equations. Dynamics of Open-Chain Manipulators. Lyapunov Stability Theory. Position Control and Trajectory Tracking. Control of Constrained Manipulators. MULTIFINGERED HAND KINEMATICS: Introduction to Grasping. Grasp Statics. Force-Closure. Grasp Planning. Grasp Constraints. Rolling Contact Kinematics. HAND DYNAMICS AND CONTROL: Lagrange's Equations with Constraints. Robot Hand Dynamics. Redundant and Nonmanipulable Robot Systems. Kinematics and Statics of Tendon Actuation. Control of Robot Hands. NONHOLONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN ROBOTIC SYSTEMS: Introduction. Controllability and Frobenius' Theorem. Examples of Nonholonomic Systems. Structure of Nonholonomic Systems. NONHOLONOMIC MOTION PLANNING: Introduction. Steering Model Control Systems Using Sinusoids. General Methods for Steering. Dynamic Finger Repositioning. FUTURE PROSPECTS: Robots in Hazardous Environments. Medical Applications for Multifingered Hands. Robots on a Small Scale: Microrobotics. APPENDICES: Lie Groups and Robot Kinematics. A Mathematica Package for Screw Calculus. Bibliography. Index Each chapter also includes a Summary, Bibliography, and Exercises

6,238 citations

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01 Jan 2006TL;DR: This coherent and comprehensive book unifies material from several sources, including robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, and algorithms, into planning under differential constraints that arise when automating the motions of virtually any mechanical system.

Abstract: Planning algorithms are impacting technical disciplines and industries around the world, including robotics, computer-aided design, manufacturing, computer graphics, aerospace applications, drug design, and protein folding. This coherent and comprehensive book unifies material from several sources, including robotics, control theory, artificial intelligence, and algorithms. The treatment is centered on robot motion planning but integrates material on planning in discrete spaces. A major part of the book is devoted to planning under uncertainty, including decision theory, Markov decision processes, and information spaces, which are the “configuration spaces” of all sensor-based planning problems. The last part of the book delves into planning under differential constraints that arise when automating the motions of virtually any mechanical system. Developed from courses taught by the author, the book is intended for students, engineers, and researchers in robotics, artificial intelligence, and control theory as well as computer graphics, algorithms, and computational biology.

5,623 citations

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TL;DR: This article presents a practical convex hull algorithm that combines the two-dimensional Quickhull algorithm with the general-dimension Beneath-Beyond Algorithm, and provides empirical evidence that the algorithm runs faster when the input contains nonextreme points and that it used less memory.

Abstract: The convex hull of a set of points is the smallest convex set that contains the points. This article presents a practical convex hull algorithm that combines the two-dimensional Quickhull algorithm with the general-dimension Beneath-Beyond Algorithm. It is similar to the randomized, incremental algorithms for convex hull and delaunay triangulation. We provide empirical evidence that the algorithm runs faster when the input contains nonextreme points and that it used less memory. computational geometry algorithms have traditionally assumed that input sets are well behaved. When an algorithm is implemented with floating-point arithmetic, this assumption can lead to serous errors. We briefly describe a solution to this problem when computing the convex hull in two, three, or four dimensions. The output is a set of “thick” facets that contain all possible exact convex hulls of the input. A variation is effective in five or more dimensions.

4,540 citations

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25 Apr 2008TL;DR: Principles of Model Checking offers a comprehensive introduction to model checking that is not only a text suitable for classroom use but also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field.

Abstract: Our growing dependence on increasingly complex computer and software systems necessitates the development of formalisms, techniques, and tools for assessing functional properties of these systems. One such technique that has emerged in the last twenty years is model checking, which systematically (and automatically) checks whether a model of a given system satisfies a desired property such as deadlock freedom, invariants, and request-response properties. This automated technique for verification and debugging has developed into a mature and widely used approach with many applications. Principles of Model Checking offers a comprehensive introduction to model checking that is not only a text suitable for classroom use but also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the field. The book begins with the basic principles for modeling concurrent and communicating systems, introduces different classes of properties (including safety and liveness), presents the notion of fairness, and provides automata-based algorithms for these properties. It introduces the temporal logics LTL and CTL, compares them, and covers algorithms for verifying these logics, discussing real-time systems as well as systems subject to random phenomena. Separate chapters treat such efficiency-improving techniques as abstraction and symbolic manipulation. The book includes an extensive set of examples (most of which run through several chapters) and a complete set of basic results accompanied by detailed proofs. Each chapter concludes with a summary, bibliographic notes, and an extensive list of exercises of both practical and theoretical nature.

4,450 citations