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Michael Breakspear

Bio: Michael Breakspear is an academic researcher from University of Newcastle. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cognition & Bipolar disorder. The author has an hindex of 70, co-authored 278 publications receiving 20558 citations. Previous affiliations of Michael Breakspear include University of Melbourne & University of Sydney.


Papers
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TL;DR: Simulating nonlinear neuronal dynamics on a network that captures the large-scale interregional connections of macaque neocortex, and applying information theoretic measures to identify functional networks, this work finds structure–function relations at multiple temporal scales.
Abstract: Neuronal dynamics unfolding within the cerebral cortex exhibit complex spatial and temporal patterns even in the absence of external input. Here we use a computational approach in an attempt to relate these features of spontaneous cortical dynamics to the underlying anatomical connectivity. Simulating nonlinear neuronal dynamics on a network that captures the large-scale interregional connections of macaque neocortex, and applying information theoretic measures to identify functional networks, we find structure-function relations at multiple temporal scales. Functional networks recovered from long windows of neural activity (minutes) largely overlap with the underlying structural network. As a result, hubs in these long-run functional networks correspond to structural hubs. In contrast, significant fluctuations in functional topology are observed across the sequence of networks recovered from consecutive shorter (seconds) time windows. The functional centrality of individual nodes varies across time as interregional couplings shift. Furthermore, the transient couplings between brain regions are coordinated in a manner that reveals the existence of two anticorrelated clusters. These clusters are linked by prefrontal and parietal regions that are hub nodes in the underlying structural network. At an even faster time scale (hundreds of milliseconds) we detect individual episodes of interregional phase-locking and find that slow variations in the statistics of these transient episodes, contingent on the underlying anatomical structure, produce the transfer entropy functional connectivity and simulated blood oxygenation level-dependent correlation patterns observed on slower time scales.

1,695 citations

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TL;DR: This work considers how brain-network topology shapes neural responses to damage, highlighting key maladaptive processes and the resources and processes that enable adaptation, and shows how knowledge of network topology allows for predictive models of the spread and functional consequences of brain disease.
Abstract: Pathological perturbations of the brain are rarely confined to a single locus; instead, they often spread via axonal pathways to influence other regions. Patterns of such disease propagation are constrained by the extraordinarily complex, yet highly organized, topology of the underlying neural architecture; the so-called connectome. Thus, network organization fundamentally influences brain disease, and a connectomic approach grounded in network science is integral to understanding neuropathology. Here, we consider how brain-network topology shapes neural responses to damage, highlighting key maladaptive processes (such as diaschisis, transneuronal degeneration and dedifferentiation), and the resources (including degeneracy and reserve) and processes (such as compensation) that enable adaptation. We then show how knowledge of network topology allows us not only to describe pathological processes but also to generate predictive models of the spread and functional consequences of brain disease.

1,297 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Graph theoretical analysis was applied to matrices of functional connectivity of beta band-filtered electroencephalography (EEG) channels and it was demonstrated that AD is characterized by a loss of small-world network characteristics.
Abstract: We investigated whether functional brain networks are abnormally organized in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To this end, graph theoretical analysis was applied to matrices of functional connectivity of beta band--filtered electroencephalography (EEG) channels, in 15 Alzheimer patients and 13 control subjects. Correlations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels were determined with the synchronization likelihood. The resulting synchronization matrices were converted to graphs by applying a threshold, and cluster coefficients and path lengths were computed as a function of threshold or as a function of degree K. For a wide range of thresholds, the characteristic path length L was significantly longer in the Alzheimer patients, whereas the cluster coefficient C showed no significant changes. This pattern was still present when L and C were computed as a function of K. A longer path length with a relatively preserved cluster coefficient suggests a loss of complexity and a less optimal organization. The present study provides further support for the presence of ‘‘small-world’’ features in functional brain networks and demonstrates that AD is characterized by a loss of small-world network characteristics. Graph theoretical analysis may be a useful approach to study the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels.

1,205 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is argued that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the physical sciences.
Abstract: The cortex is a complex system, characterized by its dynamics and architecture, which underlie many functions such as action, perception, learning, language, and cognition Its structural architecture has been studied for more than a hundred years; however, its dynamics have been addressed much less thoroughly In this paper, we review and integrate, in a unifying framework, a variety of computational approaches that have been used to characterize the dynamics of the cortex, as evidenced at different levels of measurement Computational models at different space-time scales help us understand the fundamental mechanisms that underpin neural processes and relate these processes to neuroscience data Modeling at the single neuron level is necessary because this is the level at which information is exchanged between the computing elements of the brain; the neurons Mesoscopic models tell us how neural elements interact to yield emergent behavior at the level of microcolumns and cortical columns Macroscopic models can inform us about whole brain dynamics and interactions between large-scale neural systems such as cortical regions, the thalamus, and brain stem Each level of description relates uniquely to neuroscience data, from single-unit recordings, through local field potentials to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), and magnetoencephalogram (MEG) Models of the cortex can establish which types of large-scale neuronal networks can perform computations and characterize their emergent properties Mean-field and related formulations of dynamics also play an essential and complementary role as forward models that can be inverted given empirical data This makes dynamic models critical in integrating theory and experiments We argue that elaborating principled and informed models is a prerequisite for grounding empirical neuroscience in a cogent theoretical framework, commensurate with the achievements in the physical sciences

986 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence supports the view that collective, nonlinear dynamics are central to adaptive cortical activity and aberrant dynamic processes appear to underlie a number of brain disorders.
Abstract: Movement, cognition and perception arise from the collective activity of neurons within cortical circuits and across large-scale systems of the brain. While the causes of single neuron spikes have been understood for decades, the processes that support collective neural behavior in large-scale cortical systems are less clear and have been at times the subject of contention. Modeling large-scale brain activity with nonlinear dynamical systems theory allows the integration of experimental data from multiple modalities into a common framework that facilitates prediction, testing and possible refutation. This work reviews the core assumptions that underlie this computational approach, the methodological framework that fosters the translation of theory into the laboratory, and the emerging body of supporting evidence. While substantial challenges remain, evidence supports the view that collective, nonlinear dynamics are central to adaptive cortical activity. Likewise, aberrant dynamic processes appear to underlie a number of brain disorders.

714 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviews studies investigating complex brain networks in diverse experimental modalities and provides an accessible introduction to the basic principles of graph theory and highlights the technical challenges and key questions to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field.
Abstract: Recent developments in the quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's structural and functional systems have features of complex networks--such as small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity--both at the whole-brain scale of human neuroimaging and at a cellular scale in non-human animals. In this article, we review studies investigating complex brain networks in diverse experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans) and provide an accessible introduction to the basic principles of graph theory. We also highlight some of the technical challenges and key questions to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field.

9,700 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Construction of brain networks from connectivity data is discussed and the most commonly used network measures of structural and functional connectivity are described, which variously detect functional integration and segregation, quantify centrality of individual brain regions or pathways, and test resilience of networks to insult.

9,291 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jun 1986-JAMA
TL;DR: The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or her own research.
Abstract: I have developed "tennis elbow" from lugging this book around the past four weeks, but it is worth the pain, the effort, and the aspirin. It is also worth the (relatively speaking) bargain price. Including appendixes, this book contains 894 pages of text. The entire panorama of the neural sciences is surveyed and examined, and it is comprehensive in its scope, from genomes to social behaviors. The editors explicitly state that the book is designed as "an introductory text for students of biology, behavior, and medicine," but it is hard to imagine any audience, interested in any fragment of neuroscience at any level of sophistication, that would not enjoy this book. The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or

7,563 citations