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Michael Brown

Bio: Michael Brown is a academic researcher at University of London who has co-authored 110 publication(s) receiving 10455 citation(s). The author has an hindex of 32. Previous affiliations of Michael Brown include Barts Health NHS Trust & University College Hospital. The author has done significant research in the topic(s): Eosinophilia & Strongyloidiasis.

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Topics: Eosinophilia, Strongyloidiasis, Tuberculosis ...read more
Papers
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2010-
Abstract: Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and approximately 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 x 10(-)(8)), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.

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Topics: SH2B1 (54%), Genome-wide association study (54%)

1,911 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PNTD.0003540
Abstract: Background Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA) countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU) before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method. Results We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%); and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001). Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9–22.7%).

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Topics: European union (57%)

206 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/13825580902825220
Laura A. Rabin1, Laura A. Rabin2, Nadia Pare1, Andrew J. Saykin3  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Episodic memory is the first and most severely affected cognitive domain in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and it is also the key early marker in prodromal stages including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relative ability of memory tests to discriminate between MCI and normal aging has not been well characterized. We compared the classification value of widely used verbal memory tests in distinguishing healthy older adults (n = 51) from those with MCI (n = 38). Univariate logistic regression indicated that the total learning score from the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) ranked highest in terms of distinguishing MCI from normal aging (sensitivity = 90.2; specificity = 84.2). Inclusion of the delayed recall condition of a story memory task (i.e., WMS-III Logical Memory, Story A) enhanced the overall accuracy of classification (sensitivity = 92.2; specificity = 94.7). Combining Logical Memory recognition and CVLT-II long delay best predicted progression from MCI to AD over a 4-year period (accurate classification = 87.5%). Learning across multiple trials may provide the most sensitive index for initial diagnosis of MCI, but inclusion of additional variables may enhance overall accuracy and may represent the optimal strategy for identifying individuals most likely to progress to dementia.

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Topics: Verbal memory (60%), Verbal learning (58%), Episodic memory (57%) ...read more

197 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1097/ALN.0B013E318186DDF8
01 Oct 2008-Anesthesiology
Abstract: Background: The duration of time that elective noncardiac surgery (NCS) should be delayed after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with bare metal stents (BMSs) is unknown. Methods: This large, single-center, retrospective study examined the relation between complication rate in patients with BMSs undergoing NCS and the duration of time between PCI and NCS. Primary endpoints included in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, or repeat revascularization with either coronary artery bypass grafting or PCI of the target vessel) and bleeding events. The relation between the events and the timing of noncardiac surgery after PCI with BMS was assessed using univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression. Results: From January 1, 1990, to January 1, 2005, a total of 899 patients were identified. The frequency of major adverse cardiac events was 10.5% when NCS was performed less than 30 days after PCI with BMS, 3.8% when NCS was performed between 31 and 90 days after PCI with BMS, and 2.8% when NCS was performed more than 90 days after PCI with BMS. In univariate and multivariate analyses, a shorter time interval between PCI with BMS and noncardiac surgery was significantly associated with increased incidence of major adverse cardiac events (univariate: P < 0.001; odds ratio 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.0‐8.3; multivariate: P 0.006; odds ratio 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5‐6.9). Bleeding events were not associated with time between PCI with BMS and NCS or with the use of antiplatelet therapy in the week before NCS. Conclusions: The incidence of major adverse cardiac events is lowest when NCS is performed at least 90 days after PCI with BMS. PERCUTANEOUS coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting 1 is the most common method of myocardial revascularization. Coronary stents have been shown to provide better short- and long-term outcome when compared with balloon angioplasty alone. 2 Both bare-metal stents (BMSs) and drug-eluting stents are used in clinical practice, the former for more than 10 yr, whereas drugeluting stents have been commercially available since 2003 in the United States. 3 Although drug-eluting stents are now used in the majority of procedures, BMSs are still indicated for a variety of patients based on individual clinical situations. 4 Thrombosis of a stent is associated with major morbidity and mortality. 5 Antiplatelet therapy is routinely administered to prevent stent thrombosis after PCI with BMS. 6 Current oral pharmacotherapy includes aspirin and clopidogrel. Bare metal stent thrombosis with this regimen occurs in less than 0.5% of patients at 30 days after PCI with BMS. 7

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Topics: Conventional PCI (62%), Bare-metal stent (61%), Percutaneous coronary intervention (57%) ...read more

177 Citations


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Open accessJournal Article
John F. Enders1Institutions (1)
Topics: MEDLINE (52%)

2,992 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000437741.48606.98
24 Jun 2014-Circulation
Abstract: Preamble and Transition to ACC/AHA Guidelines to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk S50 The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD); improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research; and develop guidelines, standards, and policies that promote optimal patient care and cardiovascular health. Toward these objectives, the ACC and AHA have collaborated with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and stakeholder and professional organizations to develop …

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2,811 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE14177
Glgc1, Icbp2, Magic Investigators3Institutions (3)
12 Feb 2015-Nature
Abstract: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis

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Topics: Genetics of obesity (64%), Body mass index (51%)

2,785 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE12506
Trine Nielsen1, Junjie Qin, Edi Prifti2, Falk Hildebrand3  +43 moreInstitutions (13)
29 Aug 2013-Nature
Abstract: We are facing a global metabolic health crisis provoked by an obesity epidemic. Here we report the human gut microbial composition in a population sample of 123 non-obese and 169 obese Danish individuals. We find two groups of individuals that differ by the number of gut microbial genes and thus gut bacterial richness. They contain known and previously unknown bacterial species at different proportions; individuals with a low bacterial richness (23% of the population) are characterized by more marked overall adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and a more pronounced inflammatory phenotype when compared with high bacterial richness individuals. The obese individuals among the lower bacterial richness group also gain more weight over time. Only a few bacterial species are sufficient to distinguish between individuals with high and low bacterial richness, and even between lean and obese participants. Our classifications based on variation in the gut microbiome identify subsets of individuals in the general white adult population who may be at increased risk of progressing to adiposity-associated co-morbidities.

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Topics: Population (54%), Microbiome (53%), Enterotype (53%) ...read more

2,727 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2015-
Abstract: Obesity is heritable and predisposes to many diseases. To understand the genetic basis of obesity better, here we conduct a genome-wide association study and Metabochip meta-analysis of body mass index (BMI), a measure commonly used to define obesity and assess adiposity, in up to 339,224 individuals. This analysis identifies 97 BMI-associated loci (P 20% of BMI variation. Pathway analyses provide strong support for a role of the central nervous system in obesity susceptibility and implicate new genes and pathways, including those related to synaptic function, glutamate signalling, insulin secretion/action, energy metabolism, lipid biology and adipogenesis.

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Topics: Body mass index (51%)

2,721 Citations


Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 32

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20215
202011
20192
20186
20177
20168

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