Michael D. Schroeder
Bio: Michael D. Schroeder is an academic researcher from Microsoft. The author has contributed to research in topics: Client & The Internet. The author has an hindex of 29, co-authored 46 publications receiving 8889 citations. Previous affiliations of Michael D. Schroeder include PARC & Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
TL;DR: Use of encryption to achieve authenticated communication in computer networks is discussed and example protocols are presented for the establishment of authenticated connections, for the management of authenticated mail, and for signature verification and document integrity guarantee.
Abstract: Use of encryption to achieve authenticated communication in computer networks is discussed. Example protocols are presented for the establishment of authenticated connections, for the management of authenticated mail, and for signature verification and document integrity guarantee. Both conventional and public-key encryption algorithms are considered as the basis for protocols.
01 Sep 1975
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore the mechanics of protecting computer-stored information from unauthorized use or modification, focusing on those architectural structures-whether hardware or software-that are necessary to support information protection.
Abstract: This tutorial paper explores the mechanics of protecting computer-stored information from unauthorized use or modification. It concentrates on those architectural structures-whether hardware or software-that are necessary to support information protection. The paper develops in three main sections. Section I describes desired functions, design principles, and examples of elementary protection and authentication mechanisms. Any reader familiar with computers should find the first section to be reasonably accessible. Section II requires some familiarity with descriptor-based computer architecture. It examines in depth the principles of modern protection architectures and the relation between capability systems and access control list systems, and ends with a brief analysts of protected subsystems and protected objects. The reader who is dismayed by either the prerequisites or the level of detail in the second section may wish to skip to Section III, which reviews the state of the art and current research projects and provides suggestions for further reading.
TL;DR: Autonet as mentioned in this paper is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnected by 100 Mb/s, full-duplex, point-to-point links, which uses cut-through to achieve a packet forwarding latency as low as 2 ms/switch.
Abstract: Autonet is a self-configuring local area network composed of switches interconnected by 100 Mb/s, full-duplex, point-to-point links. The switches contain 12 ports that are internally connected by a full crossbar. Switches use cut-through to achieve a packet forwarding latency as low as 2 ms/switch. Any switch port can be cabled to any other switch port or to a host network controller. A processor in each switch monitors the network's physical configuration. A distributed algorithm running on the switch processor computes the routes packets are to follow and fills in the packet forwarding table in each switch. With Autonet, distinct paths through the set of network links can carry packets in parallel, allowing many pairs of hosts to communicate simultaneously at full link bandwidth. A 30-switch network with more than 100 hosts has been the service network for Digital's Systems Research Center since February 1990. >
TL;DR: The set of services provided by Grapevine and how its data and function are divided among computers on the internet are described and described.
Abstract: Grapevine is a multicomputer system on the Xerox research internet. It provides facilities for the delivery of digital messages such as computer mail; for naming people, machines, and services; for authenticating people and machines; and for locating services on the internet. This paper has two goals: to describe the system itself and to serve as a case study of a real application of distributed computing. Part I describes the set of services provided by Grapevine and how its data and function are divided among computers on the internet. Part II presents in more detail selected aspects of Grapevine that illustrate novel facilities or implementation techniques, or that provide insight into the structure of a distributed system. Part III summarizes the current state of the system and the lesson learned from it so far.
06 Feb 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a distributed mail system, where a plurality of client computers are connected to each other via a network, and each client computer is configured to execute client mail application programs.
Abstract: In a computerized distributed mail system, a plurality of client computers are connected to each other via a network. Each client computer is configured to execute client mail application programs. A mail service system is also connected to the network. The system is for executing server mail programs on server computers. The mail service system includes an index server for storing mail messages in message files, and for storing a full-text index of the mail messages. In addition, the system includes means for accessing the mail messages by the plurality of client computers by searching the full-text index using queries.
01 Jan 1996
TL;DR: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols.
Abstract: From the Publisher: A valuable reference for the novice as well as for the expert who needs a wider scope of coverage within the area of cryptography, this book provides easy and rapid access of information and includes more than 200 algorithms and protocols; more than 200 tables and figures; more than 1,000 numbered definitions, facts, examples, notes, and remarks; and over 1,250 significant references, including brief comments on each paper.
30 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a secure content distribution method for a configurable general-purpose electronic commercial transaction/distribution control system, which includes a process for encapsulating digital information in one or more digital containers, a process of encrypting at least a portion of digital information, a protocol for associating at least partially secure control information for managing interactions with encrypted digital information and/or digital container, and a process that delivering one or multiple digital containers to a digital information user.
Abstract: PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To solve the problem, wherein it is impossible for an electronic content information provider to provide commercially secure and effective method, for a configurable general-purpose electronic commercial transaction/distribution control system. SOLUTION: In this system, having at least one protected processing environment for safely controlling at least one portion of decoding of digital information, a secure content distribution method comprises a process for encapsulating digital information in one or more digital containers; a process for encrypting at least a portion of digital information; a process for associating at least partially secure control information for managing interactions with encrypted digital information and/or digital container; a process for delivering one or more digital containers to a digital information user; and a process for using a protected processing environment, for safely controlling at least a portion of the decoding of the digital information. COPYRIGHT: (C)2006,JPO&NCIPI
TL;DR: Several models are formulated in which the security of protocols can be discussed precisely, and algorithms and characterizations that can be used to determine protocol security in these models are given.
Abstract: Recently the use of public key encryption to provide secure network communication has received considerable attention. Such public key systems are usually effective against passive eavesdroppers, who merely tap the lines and try to decipher the message. It has been pointed out, however, that an improperly designed protocol could be vulnerable to an active saboteur, one who may impersonate another user or alter the message being transmitted. Several models are formulated in which the security of protocols can be discussed precisely. Algorithms and characterizations that can be used to determine protocol security in these models are given.
01 Aug 1995
TL;DR: This document describes an updated version of the "Security Architecture for IP", which is designed to provide security services for traffic at the IP layer, and obsoletes RFC 2401 (November 1998).
Abstract: This document describes an updated version of the "Security Architecture for IP", which is designed to provide security services for traffic at the IP layer. This document obsoletes RFC 2401 (November 1998). [STANDARDS-TRACK]
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: This book offers a detailed and comprehensive presentation of the basic principles of interconnection network design, clearly illustrating them with numerous examples, chapter exercises, and case studies, allowing a designer to see all the steps of the process from abstract design to concrete implementation.
Abstract: One of the greatest challenges faced by designers of digital systems is optimizing the communication and interconnection between system components. Interconnection networks offer an attractive and economical solution to this communication crisis and are fast becoming pervasive in digital systems. Current trends suggest that this communication bottleneck will be even more problematic when designing future generations of machines. Consequently, the anatomy of an interconnection network router and science of interconnection network design will only grow in importance in the coming years. This book offers a detailed and comprehensive presentation of the basic principles of interconnection network design, clearly illustrating them with numerous examples, chapter exercises, and case studies. It incorporates hardware-level descriptions of concepts, allowing a designer to see all the steps of the process from abstract design to concrete implementation. ·Case studies throughout the book draw on extensive author experience in designing interconnection networks over a period of more than twenty years, providing real world examples of what works, and what doesn't. ·Tightly couples concepts with implementation costs to facilitate a deeper understanding of the tradeoffs in the design of a practical network. ·A set of examples and exercises in every chapter help the reader to fully understand all the implications of every design decision. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction to Interconnection Networks 1.1 Three Questions About Interconnection Networks 1.2 Uses of Interconnection Networks 1.3 Network Basics 1.4 History 1.5 Organization of this Book Chapter 2 A Simple Interconnection Network 2.1 Network Specifications and Constraints 2.2 Topology 2.3 Routing 2.4 Flow Control 2.5 Router Design 2.6 Performance Analysis 2.7 Exercises Chapter 3 Topology Basics 3.1 Nomenclature 3.2 Traffic Patterns 3.3 Performance 3.4 Packaging Cost 3.5 Case Study: The SGI Origin 2000 3.6 Bibliographic Notes 3.7 Exercises Chapter 4 Butterfly Networks 4.1 The Structure of Butterfly Networks 4.2 Isomorphic Butterflies 4.3 Performance and Packaging Cost 4.4 Path Diversity and Extra Stages 4.5 Case Study: The BBN Butterfly 4.6 Bibliographic Notes 4.7 Exercises Chapter 5 Torus Networks 5.1 The Structure of Torus Networks 5.2 Performance 5.3 Building Mesh and Torus Networks 5.4 Express Cubes 5.5 Case Study: The MIT J-Machine 5.6 Bibliographic Notes 5.7 Exercises Chapter 6 Non-Blocking Networks 6.1 Non-Blocking vs. Non-Interfering Networks 6.2 Crossbar Networks 6.3 Clos Networks 6.4 Benes Networks 6.5 Sorting Networks 6.6 Case Study: The Velio VC2002 (Zeus) Grooming Switch 6.7 Bibliographic Notes 6.8 Exercises Chapter 7 Slicing and Dicing 7.1 Concentrators and Distributors 7.2 Slicing and Dicing 7.3 Slicing Multistage Networks 7.4 Case Study: Bit Slicing in the Tiny Tera 7.5 Bibliographic Notes 7.6 Exercises Chapter 8 Routing Basics 8.1 A Routing Example 8.2 Taxonomy of Routing Algorithms 8.3 The Routing Relation 8.4 Deterministic Routing 8.5 Case Study: Dimension-Order Routing in the Cray T3D 8.6 Bibliographic Notes 8.7 Exercises Chapter 9 Oblivious Routing 9.1 Valiant's Randomized Routing Algorithm 9.2 Minimal Oblivious Routing 9.3 Load-Balanced Oblivious Routing 9.4 Analysis of Oblivious Routing 9.5 Case Study: Oblivious Routing in the Avici Terabit Switch Router(TSR) 9.6 Bibliographic Notes 9.7 Exercises Chapter 10 Adaptive Routing 10.1 Adaptive Routing Basics 10.2 Minimal Adaptive Routing 10.3 Fully Adaptive Routing 10.4 Load-Balanced Adaptive Routing 10.5 Search-Based Routing 10.6 Case Study: Adaptive Routing in the Thinking Machines CM-5 10.7 Bibliographic Notes 10.8 Exercises Chapter 11 Routing Mechanics 11.1 Table-Based Routing 11.2 Algorithmic Routing 11.3 Case Study: Oblivious Source Routing in the IBM Vulcan Network 11.4 Bibliographic Notes 11.5 Exercises Chapter 12 Flow Control Basics 12.1 Resources and Allocation Units 12.2 Bufferless Flow Control 12.3 Circuit Switching 12.4 Bibliographic Notes 12.5 Exercises Chapter 13 Buffered Flow Control 13.1 Packet-Buffer Flow Control 13.2 Flit-Buffer Flow Control 13.3 Buffer Management and Backpressure 13.4 Flit-Reservation Flow Control 13.5 Bibliographic Notes 13.6 Exercises Chapter 14 Deadlock and Livelock 14.1 Deadlock 14.2 Deadlock Avoidance 14.3 Adaptive Routing 14.4 Deadlock Recovery 14.5 Livelock 14.6 Case Study: Deadlock Avoidance in the Cray T3E 14.7 Bibliographic Notes 14.8 Exercises Chapter 15 Quality of Service 15.1 Service Classes and Service Contracts 15.2 Burstiness and Network Delays 15.3 Implementation of Guaranteed Services 15.4 Implementation of Best-Effort Services 15.5 Separation of Resources 15.6 Case Study: ATM Service Classes 15.7 Case Study: Virtual Networks in the Avici TSR 15.8 Bibliographic Notes 15.9 Exercises Chapter 16 Router Architecture 16.1 Basic Router Architecture 16.2 Stalls 16.3 Closing the Loop with Credits 16.4 Reallocating a Channel 16.5 Speculation and Lookahead 16.6 Flit and Credit Encoding 16.7 Case Study: The Alpha 21364 Router 16.8 Bibliographic Notes 16.9 Exercises Chapter 17 Router Datapath Components 17.1 Input Buffer Organization 17.2 Switches 17.3 Output Organization 17.4 Case Study: The Datapath of the IBM Colony Router 17.5 Bibliographic Notes 17.6 Exercises Chapter 18 Arbitration 18.1 Arbitration Timing 18.2 Fairness 18.3 Fixed Priority Arbiter 18.4 Variable Priority Iterative Arbiters 18.5 Matrix Arbiter 18.6 Queuing Arbiter 18.7 Exercises Chapter 19 Allocation 19.1 Representations 19.2 Exact Algorithms 19.3 Separable Allocators 19.4 Wavefront Allocator 19.5 Incremental vs. Batch Allocation 19.6 Multistage Allocation 19.7 Performance of Allocators 19.8 Case Study: The Tiny Tera Allocator 19.9 Bibliographic Notes 19.10 Exercises Chapter 20 Network Interfaces 20.1 Processor-Network Interface 20.2 Shared-Memory Interface 20.3 Line-Fabric Interface 20.4 Case Study: The MIT M-Machine Network Interface 20.5 Bibliographic Notes 20.6 Exercises Chapter 21 Error Control 411 21.1 Know Thy Enemy: Failure Modes and Fault Models 21.2 The Error Control Process: Detection, Containment, and Recovery 21.3 Link Level Error Control 21.4 Router Error Control 21.5 Network-Level Error Control 21.6 End-to-end Error Control 21.7 Bibliographic Notes 21.8 Exercises Chapter 22 Buses 22.1 Bus Basics 22.2 Bus Arbitration 22.3 High Performance Bus Protocol 22.4 From Buses to Networks 22.5 Case Study: The PCI Bus 22.6 Bibliographic Notes 22.7 Exercises Chapter 23 Performance Analysis 23.1 Measures of Interconnection Network Performance 23.2 Analysis 23.3 Validation 23.4 Case Study: Efficiency and Loss in the BBN Monarch Network 23.5 Bibliographic Notes 23.6 Exercises Chapter 24 Simulation 24.1 Levels of Detail 24.2 Network Workloads 24.3 Simulation Measurements 24.4 Simulator Design 24.5 Bibliographic Notes 24.6 Exercises Chapter 25 Simulation Examples 495 25.1 Routing 25.2 Flow Control Performance 25.3 Fault Tolerance Appendix A Nomenclature Appendix B Glossary Appendix C Network Simulator