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Michael E O'Connor

Bio: Michael E O'Connor is an academic researcher from University of New England (Australia). The author has contributed to research in topics: Criminal justice & Rural settlement. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 5 publications receiving 82 citations.

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01 Jan 1989

35 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study carried out in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, in 1976, on the perception of crime and criminals is reported, where clear and distinct social types of the violent criminal and swindler were found, which were reasonably close to, or at least not discordant with, criminological sociological literature.
Abstract: Part of the findings of a study carried out in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, in 1976, on the perception of crime and criminals are reported. Clear and distinct social types of the violent criminal and swindler were found, which were reasonably close to, or at least not discordant with, criminological‐sociological literature. A very negative assessment of the violent criminal was held by respondents, which contrasted with the more positive assessment of the swindler. Differences were also found in respondents’ perceptions of the aetiology of violent crime and fraud. However, respondents were punitive toward both types of criminals, though more punitive toward the violent criminal. The analysis is presented within a framework of emphasizing social typing, the audience and social control. It is argued that the repertoire of social types held by individuals and groups, and the process of social typing, play a central part in the functioning of criminal justice systems and the social construction of social co...

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the results of a study of concern about crime and fear of crime in an Australian rural community, which has established socio-demographi cationi...
Abstract: This article presents the results of a study of concern about crime and fear of crime in an Australian rural community. Previous urban research on this topic, which has established socio-demographi...

16 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
C. Hale1
TL;DR: The literature on fear of crime has grown rapidly in the last three decades as discussed by the authors, and the reasons for this growth and attempts to put some structure on the work to date are discussed and alternative approaches suggested.
Abstract: The literature on fear of crime has grown rapidly in the last three decades. This paper examines the reasons for this growth and attempts to put some structure on the work to date. The inadequacies of measures of fear of crime are discussed and alternative approaches suggested. Alternative explanatory theories are compared and strategies for reducing fear reviewed.

1,258 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article suggested that inconsistent or anomalous findings in this area of research may also result from problems of conceptualization and theory, and argued that the conflict perspective must be substantially revised to begin to account for various anomalies observed by empirical researchers.
Abstract: Research on race and punishment for crime has produced inconsistent findings. Most previous reviews of the literature have been focused primarily on the numerous methodological flaws that may give rise to such inconsistencies. In this paper I suggest that inconsistent or anomalous findings in this area of research may also result from problems of conceptualization and theory. More specifically, it is argued that the conflict perspective must be substantially revised to begin to account for various anomalies observed by empirical researchers. Such a need for revision is the consequence of both problems in the original formulation of the perspective and its oversimplification within the empirical literature. One of the most widely debated issues in the criminological literature is whether there is racial bias in the administration of justice. In addition to numerous empirical investigations, there have been efforts in recent years to review previous studies and to determine where the weight of the evidence lies (Green 1971; Hagan 1974; Hagan and Bumiller 1983; Hardy 1983; Kleck 1981; Spohn et al. 1981-82). As in other areas of social research, most studies of racial bias in the administration of justice involve black-white comparisons. Reviews of empirical investigations have shown a large number of these studies to report significantly greater rates and levels of punishment for blacks than for whites.1 Others report no significant differences between the races. Still others find that in certain instances, whites receive significantly more punishment for crime than do blacks (e.g., Bernstein et al. 1977; Bullock 1961; Gibson 1978; Levin 1972). This latter finding is often described as an anomaly or inconsistency given the theoretical model that has guided research on this topic. Released time to prepare this paper was provided by the R. J. Reynolds Foundation and by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. RII-8421196. I thank John Hagan, Michael Radelet, and anonymous referees for their helpful comments on earlier drafts. Address correspondence to the author, Black Studies Program and Department of Sociology, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60680. ? 1987 The University of North Carolina Press

235 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed geographical progress in this area and argued that attention should be shifted from the police towards policing and pointed out that the concept of governance provides a suitable framework for theorizing new geographies of policing, and critical scrutiny is given to discourses of policing and their potential to exclude particular people from particular spaces.
Abstract: In 1991 Nicolas Fyfe published a paper in this journal arguing that studies of the police were 'conspicuously absent from the landscapes of human geography' (Fyfe, 1991: 249). This article reviews geographical progress in this area and argues that attention should be shifted from the police towards policing. Consideration is given to the increasing numbers of agencies that perform policing, including state, private and voluntary actors, as well as 'the police' themselves. Second, critical scrutiny is given to discourses of policing and their potential to exclude particular people from particular spaces. It is argued that the concept of governance provides a suitable framework for theorizing new geographies of policing.

81 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Canter and Larkin's (1993) Circle Theory of Environmental Range was designed as a means of using the geographical locations of an individual offender's known offences to predict the approximate site of the offender's residential base as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: D Canter and P Larkin's (1993) Circle Theory of Environmental Range was designed as a means of using the geographical locations of an individual offender's known offences to predict the approximate site of the offender's residential base Canter and Larkin obtained support for their theory from an investigation of spatial patterns in serial rapists' offences in a few British cities The present study sought to assess the generality of Circle Theory by examining spatial patterns of serial offences in three crime modalities in the Australian environment Data on 24 serial rapists, 22 serial arsonists, and 27 serial burglars were extracted from the NSW Police Service's files of criminal records For each case the positions of offences and the domestic base were plotted on a scaled street map Using a technique defined by Canter and Larkin a circle was constructed to represent the offender's hypothetical criminal range In most cases of serial rape and arson, the hypothetical criminal range encompassed the kn

81 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a typology of rural communities was developed from cluster analysis of demographic, economic and social structural measures of rural local government areas (LGAs) in NSW and six distinct types of small communities were found to have unique crime characteristics.
Abstract: This paper extends research on rural crime beyond North America by analysing associations between census measures of community structures and officially reported crime in rural New South Wales (Australia). It employs social disorganisation theory to examine variations in crime rates between different kinds of rural communities. A typology of rural communities was developed from cluster analysis of demographic, economic and social structural measures of rural local government areas (LGAs) in NSW. Six distinct types of rural communities were found to have unique crime characteristics. Structural measures were statistically associated with four types of crime. Overall, the findings support social disorganisation theory. Crime generally decreased across an urban-rural continuum, and more cohesive and integrated community structures had less crime. One highly disorganised type of small community had extremely high crime. These analyses demonstrate how specific structures of rural places are linked to rural crime.

77 citations