scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Michael G. Ross

Bio: Michael G. Ross is an academic researcher from University of California, Los Angeles. The author has contributed to research in topics: Offspring & Amniotic fluid. The author has an hindex of 55, co-authored 446 publications receiving 13800 citations. Previous affiliations of Michael G. Ross include Albert Einstein College of Medicine & Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science.


Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An improved protocol significantly reduces amplification bias and minimizes the previously severe effects of PCR instrument and temperature ramp rate and identifies PCR during library preparation as a principal source of bias and optimized the conditions.
Abstract: Despite the ever-increasing output of Illumina sequencing data, loci with extreme base compositions are often under-represented or absent. To evaluate sources of base-composition bias, we traced genomic sequences ranging from 6% to 90% GC through the process by quantitative PCR. We identified PCR during library preparation as a principal source of bias and optimized the conditions. Our improved protocol significantly reduces amplification bias and minimizes the previously severe effects of PCR instrument and temperature ramp rate.

1,099 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The assays presented in this paper provide a comprehensive view of sequencing bias, which can be used to drive laboratory improvements and to monitor production processes, and indicate that combining data from two technologies can reduce coverage bias.
Abstract: DNA sequencing technologies deviate from the ideal uniform distribution of reads. These biases impair scientific and medical applications. Accordingly, we have developed computational methods for discovering, describing and measuring bias. We applied these methods to the Illumina, Ion Torrent, Pacific Biosciences and Complete Genomics sequencing platforms, using data from human and from a set of microbes with diverse base compositions. As in previous work, library construction conditions significantly influence sequencing bias. Pacific Biosciences coverage levels are the least biased, followed by Illumina, although all technologies exhibit error-rate biases in high- and low-GC regions and at long homopolymer runs. The GC-rich regions prone to low coverage include a number of human promoters, so we therefore catalog 1,000 that were exceptionally resistant to sequencing. Our results indicate that combining data from two technologies can reduce coverage bias if the biases in the component technologies are complementary and of similar magnitude. Analysis of Illumina data representing 120-fold coverage of a well-studied human sample reveals that 0.20% of the autosomal genome was covered at less than 10% of the genome-wide average. Excluding locations that were similar to known bias motifs or likely due to sample-reference variations left only 0.045% of the autosomal genome with unexplained poor coverage. The assays presented in this paper provide a comprehensive view of sequencing bias, which can be used to drive laboratory improvements and to monitor production processes. Development guided by these assays should result in improved genome assemblies and better coverage of biologically important loci.

806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Aug 2012-Nature
TL;DR: Together, this study reveals the alteration of WNT, hedgehog, histone methyltransferase and now N-CoR pathways across medulloblastomas and within specific subtypes of this disease, and nominates the RNA helicase DDX3X as a component of pathogenic β-catenin signalling in medullOBlastoma.
Abstract: Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumours in children. Identifying and understanding the genetic events that drive these tumours is critical for the development of more effective diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. Recently, our group and others described distinct molecular subtypes of medulloblastoma on the basis of transcriptional and copy number profiles. Here we use whole-exome hybrid capture and deep sequencing to identify somatic mutations across the coding regions of 92 primary medulloblastoma/normal pairs. Overall, medulloblastomas have low mutation rates consistent with other paediatric tumours, with a median of 0.35 non-silent mutations per megabase. We identified twelve genes mutated at statistically significant frequencies, including previously known mutated genes in medulloblastoma such as CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4 and TP53. Recurrent somatic mutations were newly identified in an RNA helicase gene, DDX3X, often concurrent with CTNNB1 mutations, and in the nuclear co-repressor (N-CoR) complex genes GPS2, BCOR and LDB1. We show that mutant DDX3X potentiates transactivation of a TCF promoter and enhances cell viability in combination with mutant, but not wild-type, β-catenin. Together, our study reveals the alteration of WNT, hedgehog, histone methyltransferase and now N-CoR pathways across medulloblastomas and within specific subtypes of this disease, and nominates the RNA helicase DDX3X as a component of pathogenic β-catenin signalling in medulloblastoma.

692 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restrestr...
Abstract: The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restr...

325 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The degree of newborn nutrient enhancement and timing of IUGR newborn catch-up growth may determine the programming of orexigenic hormones and offspring obesity.
Abstract: The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns. Pregnant rats received, from day 10 to term gestation and throughout lactation, ad libitum food (AdLib) or 50% food restriction (FR) to produce IUGR newborns. AdLib vs. FR offspring were studied at day 1, and, to create two distinct groups of newborn catch-up growth (immediate, delayed) among the IUGR newborns, cross-fostering techniques were employed. The four groups of pups at 3 wk were IUGR immediate catch-up growth (FR/AdLib), IUGR delayed catch-up growth (FR/ FR), control (AdLib/AdLib), and lactation FR control (AdLib/FR). From 3 wk to 9 mo, all offspring had AdLib rat chow. Maternal FR during pregnancy resulted in IUGR pups (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 7.1 ± 0.3 g, P < 0.01) with decreased leptin (0.66 ± 0.03 vs. 1.63 ± 0.12 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and increased ghrelin (0.43 ± 0.03 vs. 0.26 ± 0.02 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Maternal FR during lactation (FR/FR) further impaired IUGR offspring growth at 3 wk. However, by 9 mo, these pups attained normal body weight, percent body fat, and plasma leptin levels. Conversely, IUGR offspring nursed by AdLib dams (FR/ AdLib) exhibited rapid catch-up growth at 3 wk and continued accelerated growth, resulting in increased weight, percent body fat, and plasma leptin levels. Thus the degree of newborn nutrient enhancement and timing of IUGR newborn catch-up growth may determine the programming of orexigenic hormones and offspring obesity.

313 citations


Cited by
More filters
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care.
Abstract: XI. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE D iabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information, refer to Bode (Ed.): Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes (1), Burant (Ed): Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2), and Klingensmith (Ed): Intensive Diabetes Management (3). The recommendations included are diagnostic and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E.

9,618 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Nov 2014-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Pilon is a fully automated, all-in-one tool for correcting draft assemblies and calling sequence variants of multiple sizes, including very large insertions and deletions, which is being used to improve the assemblies of thousands of new genomes and to identify variants from thousands of clinically relevant bacterial strains.
Abstract: Advances in modern sequencing technologies allow us to generate sufficient data to analyze hundreds of bacterial genomes from a single machine in a single day. This potential for sequencing massive numbers of genomes calls for fully automated methods to produce high-quality assemblies and variant calls. We introduce Pilon, a fully automated, all-in-one tool for correcting draft assemblies and calling sequence variants of multiple sizes, including very large insertions and deletions. Pilon works with many types of sequence data, but is particularly strong when supplied with paired end data from two Illumina libraries with small e.g., 180 bp and large e.g., 3-5 Kb inserts. Pilon significantly improves draft genome assemblies by correcting bases, fixing mis-assemblies and filling gaps. For both haploid and diploid genomes, Pilon produces more contiguous genomes with fewer errors, enabling identification of more biologically relevant genes. Furthermore, Pilon identifies small variants with high accuracy as compared to state-of-the-art tools and is unique in its ability to accurately identify large sequence variants including duplications and resolve large insertions. Pilon is being used to improve the assemblies of thousands of new genomes and to identify variants from thousands of clinically relevant bacterial strains. Pilon is freely available as open source software.

5,659 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Canu, a successor of Celera Assembler that is specifically designed for noisy single-molecule sequences, is presented, demonstrating that Canu can reliably assemble complete microbial genomes and near-complete eukaryotic chromosomes using either Pacific Biosciences or Oxford Nanopore technologies.
Abstract: Long-read single-molecule sequencing has revolutionized de novo genome assembly and enabled the automated reconstruction of reference-quality genomes. However, given the relatively high error rates of such technologies, efficient and accurate assembly of large repeats and closely related haplotypes remains challenging. We address these issues with Canu, a successor of Celera Assembler that is specifically designed for noisy single-molecule sequences. Canu introduces support for nanopore sequencing, halves depth-of-coverage requirements, and improves assembly continuity while simultaneously reducing runtime by an order of magnitude on large genomes versus Celera Assembler 8.2. These advances result from new overlapping and assembly algorithms, including an adaptive overlapping strategy based on tf-idf weighted MinHash and a sparse assembly graph construction that avoids collapsing diverged repeats and haplotypes. We demonstrate that Canu can reliably assemble complete microbial genomes and near-complete eukaryotic chromosomes using either Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) or Oxford Nanopore technologies and achieves a contig NG50 of >21 Mbp on both human and Drosophila melanogaster PacBio data sets. For assembly structures that cannot be linearly represented, Canu provides graph-based assembly outputs in graphical fragment assembly (GFA) format for analysis or integration with complementary phasing and scaffolding techniques. The combination of such highly resolved assembly graphs with long-range scaffolding information promises the complete and automated assembly of complex genomes.

4,806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Adam J. Bass1, Vesteinn Thorsson2, Ilya Shmulevich2, Sheila Reynolds2  +254 moreInstitutions (32)
11 Sep 2014-Nature
TL;DR: A comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project is described and a molecular classification dividing gastric cancer into four subtypes is proposed.
Abstract: Gastric cancer was the world’s third leading cause of cancer mortality in 2012, responsible for 723,000 deaths1. The vast majority of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, which can be further subdivided into intestinal and diffuse types according to the Lauren classification2. An alternative system, proposed by the World Health Organization, divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid) and poorly cohesive carcinomas3. These classification systems have little clinical utility, making the development of robust classifiers that can guide patient therapy an urgent priority. The majority of gastric cancers are associated with infectious agents, including the bacterium Helicobacter pylori4 and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). The distribution of histological subtypes of gastric cancer and the frequencies of H. pylori and EBV associated gastric cancer vary across the globe5. A small minority of gastric cancer cases are associated with germline mutation in E-cadherin (CDH1)6 or mismatch repair genes7 (Lynch syndrome), whereas sporadic mismatch repair-deficient gastric cancers have epigenetic silencing of MLH1 in the context of a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)8. Molecular profiling of gastric cancer has been performed using gene expression or DNA sequencing9–12, but has not led to a clear biologic classification scheme. The goals of this study by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were to develop a robust molecular classification of gastric cancer and to identify dysregulated pathways and candidate drivers of distinct classes of gastric cancer.

4,583 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The MuTect algorithm for calling somatic point mutations enables subclonal analysis of the whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data being generated in large-scale cancer genomics projects as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The MuTect algorithm for calling somatic point mutations enables subclonal analysis of the whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data being generated in large-scale cancer genomics projects.

3,773 citations