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Michael J. Durka

Bio: Michael J. Durka is an academic researcher from University of Pittsburgh. The author has contributed to research in topics: Aneurysm & Thermoelectric effect. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 9 publications receiving 115 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Most hemodynamic and geometric features in a commonly used elastase-induced rabbit saccular aneurysm model are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those seen in large numbers of human cerebral aneurYSms.
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Animal models provide a mechanism for fundamental studies of the coupling between hemodynamics and pathophysiology in diseases such as saccular aneurysms. In this work, we evaluated the capability of an elastase-induced saccular aneurysm model in rabbits to reproduce the anatomic and hemodynamic features typical for human intracranial aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Saccular aneurysms were created in 51 rabbits at the origin of the RCCA. Twelve weeks' postcreation, the lumen geometry of the aneurysm and surrounding vasculature was acquired by using 3DRA. Geometric features of these models were measured. Pulsatile 3D CFD studies were performed with rabbit-specific inlet profiles. RESULTS: Geometric features, including aneurysm height, width, neck diameter, aspect ratio, and NSI of all 51 rabbit aneurysm models fell within the range reported for human IAs. The distribution and range in values of pressure, WSS, and OSI were also typical for human IAs. A single recirculation region was observed in 33 (65%) of 51 cases, whereas a second transient recirculation zone was observed in 18 (35%) cases. Both of these flow types are commonly observed in human IAs. CONCLUSIONS: Most hemodynamic and geometric features in a commonly used elastase-induced rabbit saccular aneurysm model are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those seen in large numbers of human cerebral aneurysms. AO : aortic arch AR : aspect ratio BF : bottleneck factor CFD : computational fluid dynamics D : maximum aneurysm diameter D/N : bottleneck factor DDPA : hydraulic diameter of the distal parent artery DPA : distal parent artery DPPA : hydraulic diameter of the proximal parent artery 3DRA : 3D rotational angiography H : height of the aneurysm H/N : aspect ratio IA : intracranial aneurysm LCCA : left common carotid artery N : neck diameter NSI : nonsphericity index OSI : oscillatory shear index PA : parent artery PPA : proximal parent artery RCCA : right common carotid artery Re : Reynolds number S : aneurysm surface area TAWSS : time-averaged wall shear stress V : aneurysm volume WSS : wall shear stress

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The accuracy of CFD results can be compromised if insufficient neighboring vessels are included in studies of hemodynamics in elastase induced rabbit aneurysms, and consideration of aspect ratio, hemodynamic parameters of interest, and acceptable magnitude of error when selecting the vascular domain will increase reliability of the results while decreasing computational time.
Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies provide a valuable tool for evaluating the role of hemodynamics in vascular diseases such as cerebral aneurysms and atherosclerosis. However, such models necessarily only include isolated segments of the vasculature. In this work, we evaluate the influence of geometric approximations in vascular anatomy on hemodynamics in elastase induced saccular aneurysms in rabbits. One representative high aspect ratio (AR—height/neck width) aneurysm and one low AR aneurysm were created at the origin of the right common carotid artery in two New Zealand white rabbits. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the aneurysm and surrounding arteries were created using 3D rotational angiographic data. Five models with varying extents of neighboring vasculature were created for both the high and low AR cases. A reference model included the aneurysm sac, left common carotid artery (LCCA), aortic arch, and downstream trifurcation/quadrification. Three-dimensional, pulsatile CFD studies were performed and streamlines, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index, and cross sectional velocity were compared between the models. The influence of the vascular domain on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics varied between the low and high AR cases. For the high AR case, even a simple model including only the aneurysm, a small section of neighboring vasculature, and simple extensions captured the main features of the steamline and WSS distribution predicted by the reference model. However, the WSS distribution in the low AR case was more strongly influenced by the extent of vasculature. In particular, it was necessary to include the downstream quadrification and upstream LCCA to obtain good predictions of WSS. The findings in this work demonstrate the accuracy of CFD results can be compromised if insufficient neighboring vessels are included in studies of hemodynamics in elastase induced rabbit aneurysms. Consideration of aspect ratio, hemodynamic parameters of interest, and acceptable magnitude of error when selecting the vascular domain will increase reliability of the results while decreasing computational time.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The focus of this work was to evaluate whether a commonly used elastase induced aneurysm model in rabbits is suitable for a study of this kind from a hemodynamic perspective, and to assess whether hemodynamic factors in low and high AR sacs are statistically different.

22 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It was shown that a single archetypal waveform cannot well-represent the diverse waveforms found within an aged population, although this approach is frequently used in studies of flow in the cerebral vasculature, and a set of eight waveforms were identified that collectively represent the range of waveforms in the older population.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE Blood flow waveforms-essential data for hemodynamic modeling-are often in practice unavailable to researchers. The objectives of this work were to assess the variability among the waveforms for a clinically relevant older population, and develop data-based methods for addressing the missing waveform data for hemodynamic studies. APPROACH We analyzed 272 flow waveforms from the internal carotid arteries of older patients (73 ± 13 yr) with moderate cardiovascular disease, and used these data to develop methods to guide new approaches for hemodynamic studies. MAIN RESULTS Profound variations in waveform parameters were found within the aged population that were not seen in published data for young subjects. Common features in the aged population relative to the young included a larger systole-to-diastole flow rate ratio, increased flow during late systole, and absence of a dicrotic notch. Eight waveforms were identified that collectively represent the range of waveforms in the older population. A relationship between waveform shape and flow rate was obtained that, in conjunction with equations relating flow rate to diameter, can be used to provide individualized waveforms for patient-specific geometries. The dependence of flow rate on diameter was statistically different between male and female patients. SIGNIFICANCE It was shown that a single archetypal waveform cannot well-represent the diverse waveforms found within an aged population, although this approach is frequently used in studies of flow in the cerebral vasculature. Motivated by these results, we provided a set of eight waveforms that can be used to assess the hemodynamic uncertainty associated with the lack of patient-specific waveform data. We also provided a methodology for generating individualized waveforms when patient gender, age, and cardiovascular disease state are known. These data-driven approaches can be used to devise more relevant in vitro or in silico intra-cranial hemodynamic studies for older patients.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2016-Energy
TL;DR: In this paper, the shadow effect contributions of interconnectors and thermoelectric material legs through a point-in-polygon algorithm was used to numerically resolve F ij between the interior hot-and cold-side ceramic plates within a unit cell TED.

10 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proposed that the “high-versus-low wall shear stress” controversy is a manifestation of the complexity of aneurysm pathophysiology, and both high and low wallShear stress can drive intracranial aneurYSm growth and rupture.
Abstract: Summary: Increasing detection of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, catastrophic outcomes from subarachnoid hemorrhage, and risks and cost of treatment necessitate defining objective predictive parameters of aneurysm rupture risk. Image-based computational fluid dynamics models have suggested associations between hemodynamics and intracranial aneurysm rupture, albeit with conflicting findings regarding wall shear stress. We propose that the “high-versus-low wall shear stress” controversy is a manifestation of the complexity of aneurysm pathophysiology, and both high and low wall shear stress can drive intracranial aneurysm growth and rupture. Low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index trigger an inflammatory-cell-mediated pathway, which could be associated with the growth and rupture of large, atherosclerotic aneurysm phenotypes, while high wall shear stress combined with a positive wall shear stress gradient trigger a mural-cell-mediated pathway, which could be associated with the growth and rupture of small or secondary bleb aneurysm phenotypes. This hypothesis correlates disparate intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology with the results of computational fluid dynamics in search of more reliable risk predictors.

670 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The following needs are identified to have a robust CFD tool for clinical use: more reliability tests through validation studies, analyses of larger generalized clinical datasets to find converging universal risk parameters, and better coordinated and organized communications and collaborations between engineers and clinicians.
Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used for several years to identify mechanical risk factors associated with aneurysmal evolution and rupture as well as to understand flow characteristics before and after surgical treatments in order to help the clinical decision making process. We used the keywords, "CFD" and "aneurysms" to search recent publications since about 2000, and categorized them into (i) studies of rupture risk factors and (ii) investigations of pre- and post-evaluations of surgical treatment with devices like coils and flow diverters (FD). This search enables us to examine the current status of CFD as a clinical tool and to determine if CFD can potentially become an important part of the routine clinical practice for the evaluation and treatment of aneurysms in near future. According to previous reports, it has been argued that CFD has become a quite robust non-invasive tool for the evaluation of surgical devices, especially in the early stages of device design and it has also been applied successfully to the study of rupture risk assessment. However, we find that due to the large number of pre-processing inputs further efforts of validation and reproducibility of CFD with larger clinical datasets are still essential to identify standardized mechanical risk factors. As a result, we identify the following needs to have a robust CFD tool for clinical use: (i) more reliability tests through validation studies, (ii) analyses of larger generalized clinical datasets to find converging universal risk parameters, (iii) fluid structure interaction (FSI) analyses to better understand the detailed vascular remodeling processes associated with aneurysm growth, evolution and rupture, and (iv) better coordinated and organized communications and collaborations between engineers and clinicians.

103 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ruptured and unruptured blebs shared a distinctive pattern of low WSS and high OSI, and the degree of WSS at the rupture site was significantly lower than in the unrupturing thin-walled blebs.
Abstract: Object The difference in the hemodynamics of wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms is not well understood. The authors investigated the hemodynamic similarities and dissimilarities in ruptured and thin-walled unruptured aneurysm blebs. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging–based fluid dynamics analysis was used to calculate WSS and OSI, and hemodynamic and intraoperative findings were compared. The authors also compared ruptured and unruptured thin-walled blebs for the magnitude of WSS and OSI. Results Intraoperatively, 13 ruptured and 139 thin-walled unruptured aneurysm blebs were identified. Twelve of the ruptured (92.3%) and 124 of the unruptured blebs (89.2%) manifested low WSS and high OSI. The degree of WSS was significantly lower in ruptured (0.49 ± 0.12 Pa) than in unruptured (0.64 ± 0.15 Pa; p < 0.01) blebs. Conclusions Ruptured and unruptured blebs shared a distinctive pattern of low WSS and high OSI. The degree of WSS at the rupture sit...

67 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
31 Jan 2013-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The ruptured aneurysms manifested lower WSS, higher percentage of low WSS area, and higher AR, compared with the unruptured one, suggesting hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurYSm rupture status.
Abstract: Background and Purpose Hemodynamic factors are commonly believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. In this study, we aimed to identify significant hemodynamic and morphological parameters that discriminate intracranial aneurysm rupture status using 3-dimensional-angiography and computational fluid dynamics technology. Materials and Methods 3D-DSA was performed in 8 patients with mirror posterior communicating artery aneurysms (Pcom-MANs). Each pair was divided into ruptured and unruptured groups. Five morphological and three hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for significance with respect to rupture. Results The normalized mean wall shear stress (WSS) of the aneurysm sac in the ruptured group was significantly lower than that in the unruptured group (0.52±0.20 versus 0.81±0.21, P = .012). The percentage of the low WSS area in the ruptured group was higher than that in the unruptured group (4.11±4.66% versus 0.02±0.06%, P = .018). The AR was 1.04±0.21 in the ruptured group, which was significantly higher than 0.70±0.17 in the unruptured group (P = .012). By contrast, parameters that had no significant differences between the two groups were OSI (P = .674), aneurysm size (P = .327), size ratio (P = .779), vessel angle (P = 1.000) and aneurysm inclination angle (P = 1.000). Conclusions Pcom-MANs may be a useful disease model to investigate possible causes of aneurysm rupture. The ruptured aneurysms manifested lower WSS, higher percentage of low WSS area, and higher AR, compared with the unruptured one. And hemodynamics is as important as morphology in discriminating aneurysm rupture status.

59 citations