Author

# Michael James Lighthill

Bio: Michael James Lighthill is an academic researcher from University of Manchester. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Turbulence & Boundary layer. The author has an hindex of 19, co-authored 20 publication(s) receiving 14463 citation(s).

##### Papers

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Abstract: A theory is initiated, based on the equations of motion of a gas, for the purpose of estimating the sound radiated from a fluid flow, with rigid boundaries, which as a result of instability contains regular fluctuations or turbulence. The sound field is that which would be produced by a static distribution of acoustic quadrupoles whose instantaneous strength per unit volume is ρv i v j + p ij - a 2 0 ρ δ ij , where ρ is the density, v i the velocity vector, p ij the compressive stress tensor, and a 0 the velocity of sound outside the flow. This quadrupole strength density may be approximated in many cases as ρ 0 v i v j . The radiation field is deduced by means of retarded potential solutions. In it, the intensity depends crucially on the frequency as well as on the strength of the quadrupoles, and as a result increases in proportion to a high power, near the eighth, of a typical velocity U in the flow. Physically, the mechanism of conversion of energy from kinetic to acoustic is based on fluctuations in the flow of momentum across fixed surfaces, and it is explained in § 2 how this accounts both for the relative inefficiency of the process and for the increase of efficiency with U . It is shown in § 7 how the efficiency is also increased, particularly for the sound emitted forwards, in the case of fluctuations convected at a not negligible Mach number.

4,380 citations

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TL;DR: The theory of kinematic waves is applied to the problem of estimating how a ‘hump’, or region of increased concentration, will move along a crowded main road, and is applicable principally to traffic behaviour over a long stretch of road.

Abstract: This paper uses the method of kinematic waves, developed in part I, but may be read independently. A functional relationship between flow and concentration for traffic on crowded arterial roads has been postulated for some time, and has experimental backing (§2). From this a theory of the propagation of changes in traffic distribution along these roads may be deduced (§§2, 3). The theory is applied (§4) to the problem of estimating how a ‘hump’, or region of increased concentration, will move along a crowded main road. It is suggested that it will move slightly slower than the mean vehicle speed, and that vehicles passing through it will have to reduce speed rather suddenly (at a ‘shock wave’) on entering it, but can increase speed again only very gradually as they leave it. The hump gradually spreads out along the road, and the time scale of this process is estimated. The behaviour of such a hump on entering a bottleneck, which is too narrow to admit the increased flow, is studied (§5), and methods are obtained for estimating the extent and duration of the resulting hold-up. The theory is applicable principally to traffic behaviour over a long stretch of road, but the paper concludes (§6) with a discussion of its relevance to problems of flow near junctions, including a discussion of the starting flow at a controlled junction. In the introductory sections 1 and 2, we have included some elementary material on the quantitative study of traffic flow for the benefit of scientific readers unfamiliar with the subject.

3,581 citations

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Abstract: The theory of sound generated aerodynamically is extended by taking into account the statistical properties of turbulent airflows, from which the sound radiated (without the help of solid boundaries) is called aerodynamic noise. The theory is developed with special reference to the noise of jets, for which a detailed comparison with experiment is made (§7 for subsonic jets, §8 for supersonic ones). The quadrupole distribution of part I (Lighthill 1952) is shown to behave (see §3) as if it were concentrated into independent point quadrupoles, one in each ‘average eddy volume’. The sound field of each of these is distorted, in favour of downstream emission, by the general downstream motion of the eddy, in accordance with the quadrupole convection theory of part I. This explains, for jet noise, the marked preference for downstream emission, and its increase with jet velocity. For jet velocities considerably greater than the atmospheric speed of sound, the ‘Mach number of convection’ M c may exceed I in parts of the jet, and then the directional maximum for emission from these parts of the jet is at an angle of sec -1 ( M c ) to the axis (§8). Although turbulence without any mean flow has an acoustic power output, which was calculated to a rough approximation from the expressions of part I by Proudman (1952) (see also § 4 below), nevertheless, turbulence of given intensity can generate more sound in the presence of a large mean shear (§ 5). This sound has a directional maximum at 45° (or slightly less, due to the quadrupole convection effect) to the shear layer. These results follow from the fact that the most important term in the rate of change of momentum flux is the product of the pressure and the rate of strain (see figure 2). The higher frequency sound from the heavily sheared mixing region close to the orifice of a jet is found to be of this character. But the lower frequency sound from the fully turbulent core of the jet, farther downstream, can be estimated satisfactorily (§7) from Proudman’s results, which are here reinterpreted (§5) in terms of sound generated from combined fluctuations of pressure and rate of shear in the turbulence. The acoustic efficiency of the jet is of the order of magnitude 10 -4 M 5 , where M is the orifice Mach number. However, the good agreement, as regards total acoustic power output, with the dimensional considerations of part I, is partly fortuitous. The quadrupole convection effect should produce an increase in the dependence of acoustic power on the jet velocity above the predicted U 8 law. The experiments show that (largely cancelling this) some other dependence on velocity is present, tending to reduce the intensity, at the stations where the convection effect would be absent, below the U 8 law. At these stations (at 90° to the jet) proportionality to about U 6.5 is more common. A suggested explanation of this, compatible with the existing evidence, is that at higher Mach numbers there may be less turbulence (especially for larger values of nd / U , where n is frequency and d diameter), because in the mixing region, where the turbulence builds up, it is losing energy by sound radiation. This would explain also the slow rate of spread of supersonic mixing regions, and, indeed, is not incompatible with existing rough explanations of that phenomenon. A consideration (§6) of whether the terms other than momentum flux in the quadrupole strength density might become important in heated jets indicates that they should hardly ever be dominant. Accordingly, the physical explanation (part I) of aerodynamic sound generation still stands. It is re-emphasized, however, that whenever there is a fluctuating force between the fluid and a solid boundary, a dipole radiation will result which may be more efficient than the quadrupole radiation, at least at low Mach numbers.

1,382 citations

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Abstract: In this paper and in part II, we give the theory of a distinctive type of wave motion, which arises in any one-dimensional flow problem when there is an approximate functional relation at each point between the flow q (quantity passing a given point in unit time) and concentration k (quantity per unit distance). The wave property then follows directly from the equation of continuity satisfied by q and k. In view of this, these waves are described as 'kinematic', as distinct from the classical wave motions, which depend also on Newton's second law of motion and are therefore called 'dynamic'. Kinematic waves travel with the velocity $\partial $q/$\partial $k, and the flow q remains constant on each kinematic wave. Since the velocity of propagation of each wave depends upon the value of q carried by it, successive waves may coalesce to form 'kinematic shock waves'. From the point of view of kinematic wave theory, there is a discontinuous increase in q at a shock, but in reality a shock wave is a relatively narrow region in which (owing to the rapid increase of q) terms neglected by the flow-concentration relation become important. The general properties of kinematic waves and shock waves are discussed in detail in section 1. One example included in section 1 is the interpretation of the group-velocity phenomenon in a dispersive medium as a particular case of the kinematic wave phenomenon. The remainder of part I is devoted to a detailed treatment of flood movement in long rivers, a problem in which kinematic waves play the leading role although dynamic waves (in this case, the long gravity waves) also appear. First (section 2), we consider the variety of factors which can influence the approximate flow-concentration relation, and survey the various formulae which have been used in attempts to describe it. Then follows a more mathematical section (section 3) in which the role of the dynamic waves is clarified. From the full equations of motion for an idealized problem it is shown that at the 'Froude numbers' appropriate to flood waves, the dynamic waves are rapidly attenuated and the main disturbance is carried downstream by the kinematic waves; some account is then given of the behaviour of the flow at higher Froude numbers. Also in section 3, the full equations of motion are used to investigate the structure of the kinematic shock; for this problem, the shock is the 'monoclinal flood wave' which is well known in the literature of this subject. The final sections (section section 4 and 5) contain the application of the theory of kinematic waves to the determination of flood movement. In section 4 it is shown how the waves (including shock waves) travelling downstream from an observation point may be deduced from a knowledge of the variation with time of the flow at the observation point; this section then concludes with a brief account of the effect on the waves of tributaries and run-off. In section 5, the modifications (similar to diffusion effects) which arise due to the slight dependence of the flow-concentration curve on the rate of change of flow or concentration, are described and methods for their inclusion in the theory are given.

1,305 citations

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Abstract: This paper uses the method of kinematic waves, developed in part I, but may be read independently. A functional relationship between flow and concentration for traffic on crowded arterial roads has been postulated for some time, and has experimental backing (§2). From this a theory of the propagation of changes in traffic distribution along these roads may be deduced (§§2, 3). The theory is applied (§4) to the problem of estimating how a ‘hump’, or region of increased concentration, will move along a crowded main road. It is suggested that it will move slightly slower than the mean vehicle speed, and that vehicles passing through it will have to reduce speed rather suddenly (at a ‘shock wave’) on entering it, but can increase speed again only very gradually as they leave it. The hump gradually spreads out along the road, and the time scale of this process is estimated. The behaviour of such a hump on entering a bottleneck, which is too narrow to admit the increased flow, is studied (§5), and methods are obtained for estimating the extent and duration of the resulting hold-up. The theory is applicable principally to traffic behaviour over a long stretch of road, but the paper concludes (§6) with a discussion of its relevance to problems of flow near junctions, including a discussion of the starting flow at a controlled junction. In the introductory sections 1 and 2, we have included some elementary material on the quantitative study of traffic flow for the benefit of scientific readers unfamiliar with the subject.

3,983 citations

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TL;DR: The theory of kinematic waves is applied to the problem of estimating how a ‘hump’, or region of increased concentration, will move along a crowded main road, and is applicable principally to traffic behaviour over a long stretch of road.

Abstract: This paper uses the method of kinematic waves, developed in part I, but may be read independently. A functional relationship between flow and concentration for traffic on crowded arterial roads has been postulated for some time, and has experimental backing (§2). From this a theory of the propagation of changes in traffic distribution along these roads may be deduced (§§2, 3). The theory is applied (§4) to the problem of estimating how a ‘hump’, or region of increased concentration, will move along a crowded main road. It is suggested that it will move slightly slower than the mean vehicle speed, and that vehicles passing through it will have to reduce speed rather suddenly (at a ‘shock wave’) on entering it, but can increase speed again only very gradually as they leave it. The hump gradually spreads out along the road, and the time scale of this process is estimated. The behaviour of such a hump on entering a bottleneck, which is too narrow to admit the increased flow, is studied (§5), and methods are obtained for estimating the extent and duration of the resulting hold-up. The theory is applicable principally to traffic behaviour over a long stretch of road, but the paper concludes (§6) with a discussion of its relevance to problems of flow near junctions, including a discussion of the starting flow at a controlled junction. In the introductory sections 1 and 2, we have included some elementary material on the quantitative study of traffic flow for the benefit of scientific readers unfamiliar with the subject.

3,581 citations

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Abstract: A simple analytic model is constructed to elucidate some basic features of the response of the tropical atmosphere to diabatic heating. In particular, there is considerable east-west asymmetry which can be illustrated by solutions for heating concentrated in an area of finite extent. This is of more than academic interest because heating in practice tends to be concentrated in specific areas. For instance, a model with heating symmetric about the equator at Indonesian longitudes produces low-level easterly flow over the Pacific through propagation of Kelvin waves into the region. It also produces low-level westerly inflow over the Indian Ocean (but in a smaller region) because planetary waves propagate there. In the heating region itself the low-level flow is away from the equator as required by the vorticity equation. The return flow toward the equator is farther west because of planetary wave propagation, and so cyclonic flow is obtained around lows which form on the western margins of the heating zone. Another model solution with the heating displaced north of the equator provides a flow similar to the monsoon circulation of July and a simple model solution can also be found for heating concentrated along an inter-tropical convergence line.

3,373 citations

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TL;DR: This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic, including microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models.

Abstract: Since the subject of traffic dynamics has captured the interest of physicists, many surprising effects have been revealed and explained. Some of the questions now understood are the following: Why are vehicles sometimes stopped by ``phantom traffic jams'' even though drivers all like to drive fast? What are the mechanisms behind stop-and-go traffic? Why are there several different kinds of congestion, and how are they related? Why do most traffic jams occur considerably before the road capacity is reached? Can a temporary reduction in the volume of traffic cause a lasting traffic jam? Under which conditions can speed limits speed up traffic? Why do pedestrians moving in opposite directions normally organize into lanes, while similar systems ``freeze by heating''? All of these questions have been answered by applying and extending methods from statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics to self-driven many-particle systems. This article considers the empirical data and then reviews the main approaches to modeling pedestrian and vehicle traffic. These include microscopic (particle-based), mesoscopic (gas-kinetic), and macroscopic (fluid-dynamic) models. Attention is also paid to the formulation of a micro-macro link, to aspects of universality, and to other unifying concepts, such as a general modeling framework for self-driven many-particle systems, including spin systems. While the primary focus is upon vehicle and pedestrian traffic, applications to biological or socio-economic systems such as bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, panics, and stock market dynamics are touched upon as well.

2,944 citations

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08 May 1969-Philosophical transactions - Royal Society. Mathematical, physical and engineering sciences

Abstract: Monograph on sound generation by turbulence and surfaces in arbitrary motion, discussing sound and multipole fields and governing equations

2,771 citations