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Michael S. Feld

Bio: Michael S. Feld is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Laser & Raman spectroscopy. The author has an hindex of 119, co-authored 552 publications receiving 51968 citations. Previous affiliations of Michael S. Feld include Rice University & State University of New York System.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the first observation of single molecule Raman scattering was made using a single crystal violet molecule in aqueous colloidal silver solution using one second collection time and about $2.
Abstract: By exploiting the extremely large effective cross sections ( ${10}^{\ensuremath{-}17}--{10}^{\ensuremath{-}16}{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}/\mathrm{molecule}$) available from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), we achieved the first observation of single molecule Raman scattering. Measured spectra of a single crystal violet molecule in aqueous colloidal silver solution using one second collection time and about $2\ifmmode\times\else\texttimes\fi{}{10}^{5}\mathrm{W}/{\mathrm{cm}}^{2}$ nonresonant near-infrared excitation show a clear ``fingerprint'' of its Raman features between 700 and $1700{\mathrm{cm}}^{\ensuremath{-}1}$. Spectra observed in a time sequence for an average of 0.6 dye molecule in the probed volume exhibited the expected Poisson distribution for actually measuring 0, 1, 2, or 3 molecules.

6,454 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The spontaneous Raman effect, in the following simply called Raman scattering, is focused on, which can be applied noninvasively under ambient conditions in almost every environment and has special importance for ultrasensitive Raman spectroscopy at the singlemolecule level.
Abstract: In the Raman effect, incident light is inelastically scattered from a sample and shifted in frequency by the energy of its characteristic molecular vibrations. Since its discovery in 1927, the effect has attracted attention from a basic research point of view as well as a powerful spectroscopic technique with many practical applications. The advent of laser light sources with monochromatic photons at high flux densities was a milestone in the history of Raman spectroscopy and resulted in dramatically improved scattering signals (for a general overview of modern Raman spectroscopy, see refs 1-5). In addition to this so-called spontaneous or incoherent Raman scattering, the development of lasers also opened the field of stimulated or coherent Raman spectroscopies, in which molecular vibrations are coherently excited. Whereas the intensity of spontaneous Raman scattering depends linearly on the number of probed molecules, the coherent Raman signal is proportional to the square of this number (for an overview, see refs 6 and 7). Coherent Raman techniques can provide interesting new opportunities such as vibrational imaging of biological samples,8 but they have not yet advanced the field of ultrasensitive trace detection. Therefore, in the following article, we shall focus on the spontaneous Raman effect, in the following simply called Raman scattering. Today, laser photons over a wide range of frequencies from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared region are used in Raman scattering studies, allowing selection of optimum excitation conditions for each sample. By choosing wavelengths which excite appropriate electronic transitions, resonance Raman studies of selected components of a sample or parts of a molecule can be performed.9 In the past few years, the range of excitation wavelengths has been extended to the near-infrared (NIR) region, in which background fluorescence is reduced and photoinduced degradation from the sample is diminished. High-intensity NIR diode lasers are easily available, making this region attractive for compact, low cost Raman instrumentation. Further, the development of low noise, high quantum efficiency multichannel detectors (chargecoupled device (CCD) arrays), combined with highthroughput single-stage spectrographs used in combination with holographic laser rejection filters, has led to high-sensitivity Raman spectrometers (for an overview on state-of-the-art NIR Raman systems, see ref 10). As we shall show in section 2, the nearinfrared region also has special importance for ultrasensitive Raman spectroscopy at the singlemolecule level. As with optical spectroscopy, the Raman effect can be applied noninvasively under ambient conditions in almost every environment. Measuring a Raman spectrum does not require special sample preparation techniques, in contrast with infrared absorption spectroscopy. Optical fiber probes for bringing excitation laser light to the sample and transporting scattered light to the spectrograph enable remote detection of Raman signals. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal resolution of Raman scattering are determined by the spot size and pulse length, respectively, of the excitation laser. By using a confocal microscope, Raman signals from femtoliter volumes (∼1 μm3) can by observed, enabling spatially resolved measurements in chromosomes and cells.11 Techniques such as multichannel Hadamard transform Raman microscopy12,13 or confocal scanning Fourier transform Raman microscopy14 allow generation of high-resolution Raman images of a sample. Recently, Raman spectroscopy was performed using near-field optical microscopy.15-17 Such techniques overcome the diffraction limit and allow volumes significantly smaller than the cube of the wavelength to be investigated. In the time domain, Raman spectra can be measured on the picosecond time scale, providing information on short-lived species such as excited 2957 Chem. Rev. 1999, 99, 2957−2975

2,057 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique which combines modern laser spectroscopy with the exciting optical properties of metallic nanostructures, resulting in strongly increased Raman signals when molecules are attached to nanometre-sized gold and silver structures.
Abstract: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a spectroscopic technique which combines modern laser spectroscopy with the exciting optical properties of metallic nanostructures, resulting in strongly increased Raman signals when molecules are attached to nanometre-sized gold and silver structures. The effect provides the structural information content of Raman spectroscopy together with ultrasensitive detection limits, allowing Raman spectroscopy of single molecules. Since SERS takes place in the local fields of metallic nanostructures, the lateral resolution of the technique is determined by the confinement of the local fields, which can be two orders of magnitude better than the diffraction limit. Moreover, SERS is an analytical technique, which can give information on surface and interface processes. SERS opens up exciting opportunities in the field of biophysical and biomedical spectroscopy, where it provides ultrasensitive detection and characterization of biophysically/biomedically relevant molecules and processes as well as a vibrational spectroscopy with extremely high spatial resolution. The article briefly introduces the SERS effect and reviews contemporary SERS studies in biophysics/biochemistry and in life sciences. Potential and limitations of the technique are briefly discussed.

1,015 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Raman spectroscopy is a potentially important clinical tool for real-time diagnosis of disease and in situ evaluation of living tissue as mentioned in this paper, and it provides molecular level information at the molecular level.
Abstract: Raman spectroscopy is a potentially important clinical tool for real-time diagnosis of disease and in situ evaluation of living tissue. The purpose of this article is to review the biological and physical basis of Raman spectroscopy of tissue, to assess the current status of the field and to explore future directions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy and the molecular level information it provides are explained. An overview of the evolution of Raman spectroscopic techniques in biology and medicine, from early investigations using visible laser excitation to present-day technology based on near-infrared laser excitation and charge-coupled device array detection, is presented. State-of-the-art Raman spectrometer systems for research laboratory and clinical settings are described. Modern methods of multivariate spectral analysis for extracting diagnostic, chemical and morphological information are reviewed. Several in-depth applications are presented to illustrate the methods of collecting, processing and analysing data, as well as the range of medical applications under study. Finally, the issues to be addressed in implementing Raman spectroscopy in various clinical applications, as well as some long-term directions for future study, are discussed.

916 citations

PatentDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a system and methods for quantitative three-dimensional mapping of refractive index in living or non-living cells, tissues, or organisms using a phase-shifting laser interferometric microscope with variable illumination angle.
Abstract: The present invention relates to systems and methods for quantitative three-dimensional mapping of refractive index in living or non-living cells, tissues, or organisms using a phase-shifting laser interferometric microscope with variable illumination angle. A preferred embodiment provides tomographic imaging of cells and multicellular organisms, and time-dependent changes in cell structure and the quantitative characterization of specimen-induced aberrations in high-resolution microscopy with multiple applications in tissue light scattering.

844 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presents a meta-modelling procedure called "Continuum Methods within MD and MC Simulations 3072", which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of integrating discrete and continuous components into a discrete-time model.
Abstract: 6.2.2. Definition of Effective Properties 3064 6.3. Response Properties to Magnetic Fields 3066 6.3.1. Nuclear Shielding 3066 6.3.2. Indirect Spin−Spin Coupling 3067 6.3.3. EPR Parameters 3068 6.4. Properties of Chiral Systems 3069 6.4.1. Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) 3069 6.4.2. Optical Rotation (OR) 3069 6.4.3. VCD and VROA 3070 7. Continuum and Discrete Models 3071 7.1. Continuum Methods within MD and MC Simulations 3072

13,286 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Aug 2003-Nature
TL;DR: By altering the structure of a metal's surface, the properties of surface plasmons—in particular their interaction with light—can be tailored, which could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with length scales that are much smaller than those currently achieved.
Abstract: Surface plasmons are waves that propagate along the surface of a conductor. By altering the structure of a metal's surface, the properties of surface plasmons--in particular their interaction with light--can be tailored, which offers the potential for developing new types of photonic device. This could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with length scales that are much smaller than those currently achieved. Surface plasmons are being explored for their potential in subwavelength optics, data storage, light generation, microscopy and bio-photonics.

10,689 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Feb 1997-Science
TL;DR: In this article, surface-enhanced Raman scattering was used to detect single molecules and single nanoparticles at room temperature with the use of surface enhanced Raman, and the intrinsic Raman enhancement factors were on the order of 10 14 to 10 15, much larger than the ensemble-averaged values derived from conventional measurements.
Abstract: Optical detection and spectroscopy of single molecules and single nanoparticles have been achieved at room temperature with the use of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Individual silver colloidal nanoparticles were screened from a large heterogeneous population for special size-dependent properties and were then used to amplify the spectroscopic signatures of adsorbed molecules. For single rhodamine 6G molecules adsorbed on the selected nanoparticles, the intrinsic Raman enhancement factors were on the order of 10 14 to 10 15 , much larger than the ensemble-averaged values derived from conventional measurements. This enormous enhancement leads to vibrational Raman signals that are more intense and more stable than single-molecule fluorescence.

9,609 citations

Book
15 May 2007
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the role of surface plasmon polaritons at metal/insulator interfaces and their application in the propagation of surfaceplasmon waveguides.
Abstract: Fundamentals of Plasmonics.- Electromagnetics of Metals.- Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Metal / Insulator Interfaces.- Excitation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons at Planar Interfaces.- Imaging Surface Plasmon Polariton Propagation.- Localized Surface Plasmons.- Electromagnetic Surface Modes at Low Frequencies.- Applications.- Plasmon Waveguides.- Transmission of Radiation Through Apertures and Films.- Enhancement of Emissive Processes and Nonlinearities.- Spectroscopy and Sensing.- Metamaterials and Imaging with Surface Plasmon Polaritons.- Concluding Remarks.

7,238 citations