Author

# Michael V Berry

Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Science

Bio: Michael V Berry is an academic researcher from University of Bristol. The author has contributed to research in topics: Semiclassical physics & Diffraction. The author has an hindex of 83, co-authored 302 publications receiving 34974 citations. Previous affiliations of Michael V Berry include Indian Institute of Science.

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##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be interpreted as a geometrical phase factor and a general formula for γ(C) was derived in terms of the spectrum and eigen states of the Hamiltonian over a surface spanning C.

Abstract: A quantal system in an eigenstate, slowly transported round a circuit C by varying parameters R in its Hamiltonian Ĥ(R), will acquire a geometrical phase factor exp{iγ(C)} in addition to the familiar dynamical phase factor. An explicit general formula for γ(C) is derived in terms of the spectrum and eigenstates of Ĥ(R) over a surface spanning C. If C lies near a degeneracy of Ĥ, γ(C) takes a simple form which includes as a special case the sign change of eigenfunctions of real symmetric matrices round a degeneracy. As an illustration γ(C) is calculated for spinning particles in slowly-changing magnetic fields; although the sign reversal of spinors on rotation is a special case, the effect is predicted to occur for bosons as well as fermions, and a method for observing it is proposed. It is shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be interpreted as a geometrical phase factor.

7,425 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that dislocations are to be expected whenever limited trains of waves, ultimately derived from the same oscillator, travel in different directions and interfere -for example in a scattering problem.

Abstract: When an ultrasonic pulse, containing, say, ten quasi-sinusoidal oscillations, is reflected in air from a rough surface, it is observed experimentally that the scattered wave train contains dislocations, which are closely analogous to those found in imperfect crystals. We show theoretically that such dislocations are to be expected whenever limited trains of waves, ultimately derived from the same oscillator, travel in different directions and interfere - for example in a scattering problem. Dispersion is not involved. Equations are given showing the detailed structure of edge, screw and mixed edge-screw dislocations, and also of parallel sets of such dislocations. Edge dislocations can glide relative to the wave train at any velocity; they can also climb, and screw dislocations can glide. Wavefront dislocations may be curved, and they may intersect; they may collide and rebound; they may annihilate each other or be created as loops or pairs. With dislocations in wave trains, unlike crystal dislocations, there is no breakdown of linearity near the centre. Mathematically they are lines along which the phase is indeterminate; this implies that the wave amplitude is zero.

1,984 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that for a wave ψ in the form of an Airy function the probability density ψ 2 propagates in free space without distortion and with constant acceleration.

Abstract: We show that for a wave ψ in the form of an Airy function the probability density ‖ψ‖2 propagates in free space without distortion and with constant acceleration. This ’’Airy packet’’ corresponds classically to a family of orbits represented by a parabola in phase space; under the classical motion this parabola translates rigidly, and the fact that no other curve has this property shows that the Airy packet is unique in propagating without change of form. The acceleration of the packet (which does not violate Ehrenfest’s theorem) is related to the curvature of the caustic (envelope) of the family of world lines in spacetime. When a spatially uniform force F (t) acts the Airy packet continues to preserve its integrity. We exhibit the solution of Schrodinger’s equation for general F (t) and discuss the motion for some special forms of F (t).

1,298 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of various methods of deriving expressions for quantum-mechanical quantities in the limit when hslash is small (in comparison with the relevant classical action functions) is presented.

Abstract: We review various methods of deriving expressions for quantum-mechanical quantities in the limit when hslash is small (in comparison with the relevant classical action functions). To start with we treat one-dimensional problems and discuss the derivation of WKB connection formulae (and their reversibility), reflection coefficients, phase shifts, bound state criteria and resonance formulae, employing first the complex method in which the classical turning points are avoided, and secondly the method of comparison equations with the aid of which uniform approximations are derived, which are valid right through the turningpoint regions. The special problems associated with radial equations are also considered. Next we examine semiclassical potential scattering, both for its own sake and also as an example of the three-stage approximation method which must generally be employed when dealing with eigenfunction expansions under semiclassical conditions, when they converge very slowly. Finally, we discuss the derivation of semiclassical expressions for Green functions and energy level densities in very general cases, employing Feynman's path-integral technique and emphasizing the limitations of the results obtained. Throughout the article we stress the fact that all the expressions obtained involve quantities characterizing the families of orbits in the corresponding purely classical problems, while the analytic forms of the quantal expressions depend on the topological properties of these families. This review was completed in February 1972.

1,133 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the classical limit of the distribution P(S) of spacings between adjacent levels, using a scaling transformation to remove the irrelevant effects of the varying local mean level density, was studied.

Abstract: In the regular spectrum of an f -dimensional system each energy level can be labelled with f quantum numbers originating in f constants of the classical motion. Levels with very different quantum numbers can have similar energies. We study the classical limit of the distribution P(S) of spacings between adjacent levels, using a scaling transformation to remove the irrelevant effects of the varying local mean level density. For generic regular systems P(S) = e -s , characteristic of a Poisson process with levels distributed at random. But for systems of harmonic oscillators, which possess the non-generic property that the ‘energy contours’ in action space are flat, P(S) does not exist if the oscillator frequencies are commensurable, and is peaked about a non-zero value of S if the frequencies are incommensurable, indicating some regularity in the level distribution; the precise form of P(S) depends on the arithmetic nature of the irrational frequency ratios. Numerical experiments on simple two-dimensional systems support these theoretical conclusions.

1,078 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations, are discussed.

Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.

20,824 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be interpreted as a geometrical phase factor and a general formula for γ(C) was derived in terms of the spectrum and eigen states of the Hamiltonian over a surface spanning C.

Abstract: A quantal system in an eigenstate, slowly transported round a circuit C by varying parameters R in its Hamiltonian Ĥ(R), will acquire a geometrical phase factor exp{iγ(C)} in addition to the familiar dynamical phase factor. An explicit general formula for γ(C) is derived in terms of the spectrum and eigenstates of Ĥ(R) over a surface spanning C. If C lies near a degeneracy of Ĥ, γ(C) takes a simple form which includes as a special case the sign change of eigenfunctions of real symmetric matrices round a degeneracy. As an illustration γ(C) is calculated for spinning particles in slowly-changing magnetic fields; although the sign reversal of spinors on rotation is a special case, the effect is predicted to occur for bosons as well as fermions, and a method for observing it is proposed. It is shown that the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be interpreted as a geometrical phase factor.

7,425 citations

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TL;DR: The author revealed that quantum teleportation as “Quantum one-time-pad” had changed from a “classical teleportation” to an “optical amplification, privacy amplification and quantum secret growing” situation.

Abstract: Quantum cryptography could well be the first application of quantum mechanics at the individual quanta level. The very fast progress in both theory and experiments over the recent years are reviewed, with emphasis on open questions and technological issues.

6,949 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a two-dimensional array of optical resonators with spatially varying phase response and subwavelength separation can imprint phase discontinuities on propagating light as it traverses the interface between two media.

Abstract: Conventional optical components rely on gradual phase shifts accumulated during light propagation to shape light beams. New degrees of freedom are attained by introducing abrupt phase changes over the scale of the wavelength. A two-dimensional array of optical resonators with spatially varying phase response and subwavelength separation can imprint such phase discontinuities on propagating light as it traverses the interface between two media. Anomalous reflection and refraction phenomena are observed in this regime in optically thin arrays of metallic antennas on silicon with a linear phase variation along the interface, which are in excellent agreement with generalized laws derived from Fermat’s principle. Phase discontinuities provide great flexibility in the design of light beams, as illustrated by the generation of optical vortices through use of planar designer metallic interfaces.

6,763 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent experimental and theoretical progress concerning many-body phenomena in dilute, ultracold gases is presented, focusing on effects beyond standard weakcoupling descriptions, such as the Mott-Hubbard transition in optical lattices, strongly interacting gases in one and two dimensions, or lowest-Landau-level physics in quasi-two-dimensional gases in fast rotation.

Abstract: This paper reviews recent experimental and theoretical progress concerning many-body phenomena in dilute, ultracold gases. It focuses on effects beyond standard weak-coupling descriptions, such as the Mott-Hubbard transition in optical lattices, strongly interacting gases in one and two dimensions, or lowest-Landau-level physics in quasi-two-dimensional gases in fast rotation. Strong correlations in fermionic gases are discussed in optical lattices or near-Feshbach resonances in the BCS-BEC crossover.

6,601 citations