Bio: Mickey Chopra is an academic researcher from UNICEF. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Health care. The author has an hindex of 66, co-authored 166 publications receiving 14388 citations. Previous affiliations of Mickey Chopra include United Nations & University of the Western Cape.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Saving the lives of millions of children at risk of death from diarrhoea is possible with a comprehensive strategy that ensures all children in need receive critical prevention and treatment measures.
Abstract: This report sets out a 7-point strategy for comprehensive diarrhoea control that includes a treatment package to reduce child deaths and a prevention package to reduce the number of diarrhoea cases for years to come. The report looks at treatment options such as low-osmolarity ORS and zinc tablets as well as prevention measures such as the promotion of breastfeeding vitamin A supplementation immunization against rotavirus -- a leading cause of diarrhoea -- and proven methods of improving water sanitation and hygiene practices. Diarrhoeas status as the second leading killer of children under five is an alarming reminder of the exceptional vulnerability of children in developing countries. Saving the lives of millions of children at risk of death from diarrhoea is possible with a comprehensive strategy that ensures all children in need receive critical prevention and treatment measures. (Excerpt)
TL;DR: Evidence is provided from several countries showing that rapid progress is possible and that focused and targeted interventions can reduce inequities related to socioeconomic status and sex and much more can and should be done to address maternal and newborn health and improve coverage of interventions related to family planning, care around childbirth, and case management of childhood illnesses.
Abstract: The Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival monitors coverage of priority interventions to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for child mortality and maternal health. We reviewed progress between 1990 and 2010 in coverage of 26 key interventions in 68 Countdown priority countries accounting for more than 90% of maternal and child deaths worldwide. 19 countries studied were on track to meet MDG 4, in 47 we noted acceleration in the yearly rate of reduction in mortality of children younger than 5 years, and in 12 countries progress had decelerated since 2000. Progress towards reduction of neonatal deaths has been slow, and maternal mortality remains high in most Countdown countries, with little evidence of progress. Wide and persistent disparities exist in the coverage of interventions between and within countries, but some regions have successfully reduced longstanding inequities. Coverage of interventions delivered directly in the community on scheduled occasions was higher than for interventions relying on functional health systems. Although overseas development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health has increased, funding for this sector accounted for only 31% of all development assistance for health in 2007. We provide evidence from several countries showing that rapid progress is possible and that focused and targeted interventions can reduce inequities related to socioeconomic status and sex. However, much more can and should be done to address maternal and newborn health and improve coverage of interventions related to family planning, care around childbirth, and case management of childhood illnesses.
TL;DR: To meet the challenge of chronic diseases, primary health care will have to be strengthened substantially and research on scaling-up should be embedded in large-scale delivery programmes for chronic diseases with a strong emphasis on assessment.
Abstract: The burden of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and mental disorders is high in low-income and middle-income countries and is predicted to increase with the ageing of populations, urbanisation, and globalisation of risk factors. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming a chronic disorder. An integrated approach to the management of chronic diseases, irrespective of cause, is needed in primary health care. Management of chronic diseases is fundamentally different from acute care, relying on several features: opportunistic case finding for assessment of risk factors, detection of early disease, and identification of high risk status; a combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, often in a stepped-care fashion; and long-term follow-up with regular monitoring and promotion of adherence to treatment. To meet the challenge of chronic diseases, primary health care will have to be strengthened substantially. In the many countries with shortages of primary-care doctors, non-physician clinicians will have a leading role in preventing and managing chronic diseases, and these personnel need appropriate training and continuous quality assurance mechanisms. More evidence is needed about the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies in primary health care. Research on scaling-up should be embedded in large-scale delivery programmes for chronic diseases with a strong emphasis on assessment.
TL;DR: This article looks at the levels and trends in child mortality from 1990-2009 and states that removing financial and social barriers to accessing welfare services innovations to make supply of critical services more available to the poor and increasing local accountability of the health systems are examples of policy interventions that have allowed health systems to improve equity.
Abstract: This article looks at the levels and trends in child mortality from 1990-2009. It tracks the progress that has been made in this area and states that removing financial and social barriers to accessing welfare services innovations to make supply of critical services more available to the poor and increasing local accountability of the health systems are examples of policy interventions that have allowed health systems to improve equity.
TL;DR: A concerted multisectoral approach, involving the use of policy, education and trade mechanisms, is necessary to address the global epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Abstract: It is estimated that by 2020 two-thirds of the global burden of disease will be attributable to chronic noncommunicable diseases, most of them strongly associated with diet. The nutrition transition towards refined foods, foods of animal origin, and increased fats plays a major role in the current global epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, among other noncommunicable conditions. Sedentary lifestyles and the use of tobacco are also significant risk factors. The epidemics cannot be ended simply by encouraging people to reduce their risk factors and adopt healthier lifestyles, although such encouragement is undoubtedly beneficial if the targeted people can respond. Unfortunately, increasingly obesogenic environments, reinforced by many of the cultural changes associated with globalization, make even the adoption of healthy lifestyles, especially by children and adolescents, more and more difficult. The present paper examines some possible mechanisms for, and WHO's role in, the development of a coordinated global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. The situation presents many countries with unmanageable costs. At the same time there are often continuing problems of undernutrition. A concerted multisectoral approach, involving the use of policy, education and trade mechanisms, is necessary to address these matters.
TL;DR: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) as mentioned in this paper was created to marshal the evidence on what can be done to promote health equity and to foster a global movement to achieve it.
Abstract: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health, created to marshal the evidence on what can be done to promote health equity and to foster a global movement to achieve it, is a global collaboration of policy makers, researchers, and civil society, led by commissioners with a unique blend of political, academic, and advocacy experience. The focus of attention is on countries at all levels of income and development. The commission launched its final report on August 28, 2008. This paper summarises the key findings and recommendations; the full list is in the final report.
TL;DR: It is estimated that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011.
Abstract: Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups.
TL;DR: The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.
Abstract: Without a complete published description of interventions, clinicians and patients cannot reliably implement interventions that are shown to be useful, and other researchers cannot replicate or build on research findings. The quality of description of interventions in publications, however, is remarkably poor. To improve the completeness of reporting, and ultimately the replicability, of interventions, an international group of experts and stakeholders developed the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. The process involved a literature review for relevant checklists and research, a Delphi survey of an international panel of experts to guide item selection, and a face to face panel meeting. The resultant 12 item TIDieR checklist (brief name, why, what (materials), what (procedure), who provided, how, where, when and how much, tailoring, modifications, how well (planned), how well (actual)) is an extension of the CONSORT 2010 statement (item 5) and the SPIRIT 2013 statement (item 11). While the emphasis of the checklist is on trials, the guidance is intended to apply across all evaluative study designs. This paper presents the TIDieR checklist and guide, with an explanation and elaboration for each item, and examples of good reporting. The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) as discussed by the authors was used to estimate the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs).
Abstract: Summary Background We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods For each of the 20 mental and substance use disorders included in GBD 2010, we systematically reviewed epidemiological data and used a Bayesian meta-regression tool, DisMod-MR, to model prevalence by age, sex, country, region, and year. We obtained disability weights from representative community surveys and an internet-based survey to calculate YLDs. We calculated premature mortality as YLLs from cause of death estimates for 1980–2010 for 20 age groups, both sexes, and 187 countries. We derived DALYs from the sum of YLDs and YLLs. We adjusted burden estimates for comorbidity and present them with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings In 2010, mental and substance use disorders accounted for 183·9 million DALYs (95% UI 153·5 million–216·7 million), or 7·4% (6·2–8·6) of all DALYs worldwide. Such disorders accounted for 8·6 million YLLs (6·5 million–12·1 million; 0·5% [0·4–0·7] of all YLLs) and 175·3 million YLDs (144·5 million–207·8 million; 22·9% [18·6–27·2] of all YLDs). Mental and substance use disorders were the leading cause of YLDs worldwide. Depressive disorders accounted for 40·5% (31·7–49·2) of DALYs caused by mental and substance use disorders, with anxiety disorders accounting for 14·6% (11·2–18·4), illicit drug use disorders for 10·9% (8·9–13·2), alcohol use disorders for 9·6% (7·7–11·8), schizophrenia for 7·4% (5·0–9·8), bipolar disorder for 7·0% (4·4–10·3), pervasive developmental disorders for 4·2% (3·2–5·3), childhood behavioural disorders for 3·4% (2·2–4·7), and eating disorders for 1·2% (0·9–1·5). DALYs varied by age and sex, with the highest proportion of total DALYs occurring in people aged 10–29 years. The burden of mental and substance use disorders increased by 37·6% between 1990 and 2010, which for most disorders was driven by population growth and ageing. Interpretation Despite the apparently small contribution of YLLs—with deaths in people with mental disorders coded to the physical cause of death and suicide coded to the category of injuries under self-harm—our findings show the striking and growing challenge that these disorders pose for health systems in developed and developing regions. In view of the magnitude of their contribution, improvement in population health is only possible if countries make the prevention and treatment of mental and substance use disorders a public health priority. Funding Queensland Department of Health, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre-University of New South Wales, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, University of Toronto, Technische Universitat, Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, and the US National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.