Author

# Miguel A. Bandres

Other affiliations: Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics ...read more

Bio: Miguel A. Bandres is an academic researcher from University of Central Florida. The author has contributed to research in topics: Topological insulator & Gaussian beam. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 117 publications receiving 6670 citations. Previous affiliations of Miguel A. Bandres include Technion – Israel Institute of Technology & Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education.

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TL;DR: This work demonstrates an all-dielectric magnet-free topological insulator laser, with desirable properties stemming from the topological transport of light in the laser cavity, and demonstrates higher slope efficiencies compared to those of the topologically trivial counterparts.

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Physical systems that exhibit topological invariants are naturally endowed with robustness against perturbations, as was recently demonstrated in many settings in condensed matter, photonics, cold atoms, acoustics, and more. The most prominent manifestations of topological systems are topological insulators, which exhibit scatter-free edge-state transport, immune to perturbations and disorder. Recent years have witnessed intense efforts toward exploiting these physical phenomena in the optical domain, with new ideas ranging from topology-driven unidirectional devices to topological protection of path entanglement. But perhaps more technologically relevant than all topological photonic settings studied thus far is, as proposed by the accompanying theoretical paper by Harari et al ., an all-dielectric magnet-free topological insulator laser, with desirable properties stemming from the topological transport of light in the laser cavity. RATIONALE We demonstrate nonmagnetic topological insulator lasers. The topological properties of the laser system give rise to single-mode lasing, robustness against fabrication defects, and notably higher slope efficiencies compared to those of the topologically trivial counterparts. We further exploit the properties of the active topological platform by assembling topological insulator lasers from S -chiral microresonators that enforce predetermined unidirectional lasing even in the absence of magnetic fields. RESULTS Our topological insulator laser system is an aperiodic array of 10 unit cell–by–10 unit cell coupled ring resonators on an InGaAsP quantum wells platform. The active lattice uses the topological architecture suggested in the accompanying theoretical paper. This two-dimensional setting is composed of a square lattice of ring resonators coupled to each other by means of link rings. The intermediary links are judiciously spatially shifted to introduce a set of hopping phases, establishing a synthetic magnetic field and two topological band gaps. The gain in this laser system is provided by optical pumping. To promote lasing of the topologically protected edge modes, we pump the outer perimeter of the array while leaving the interior lossy. We find that this topological insulator laser operates in single mode even considerably above threshold, whereas the corresponding topologically trivial realizations lase in multiple modes. Moreover, the topological laser displays a slope efficiency that is considerably higher than that in the corresponding trivial realizations. We further demonstrate the topological features of this laser by observing that in the topological array, all sites emit coherently at the same wavelength, whereas in the trivial array, lasing occurs in localized regions, each at a different frequency. Also, by pumping only part of the topological array, we demonstrate that the topological edge mode always travels along the perimeter and emits light through the output coupler. By contrast, when we pump the trivial array far from the output coupler, no light is extracted from the coupler because the lasing occurs at stationary modes. We also observe that, even in the presence of defects, the topological protection always leads to more efficient lasing compared to that of the trivial counterpart. Finally, to show the potential of this active system, we assemble a topological system based on S -chiral resonators, which can provide new avenues to control the topological features. CONCLUSION We have experimentally demonstrated an all-dielectric topological insulator laser and found that the topological features enhance the lasing performance of a two-dimensional array of microresonators, making them lase in unison in an extended topologically protected scatter-free edge mode. The observed single longitudinal-mode operation leads to a considerably higher slope efficiency as compared to that of a corresponding topologically trivial system. Our results pave the way toward a new class of active topological photonic devices, such as laser arrays, that can operate in a coherent fashion with high efficiencies.

1,137 citations

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TL;DR: It is demonstrated that topological insulator lasers are theoretically possible and experimentally feasible and shown that the underlying topological properties lead to highly efficient lasers, robust to defects and disorder, with single-mode lasing even at conditions high above the laser threshold.

Abstract: INTRODUCTION Topological insulators emerged in condensed matter physics and constitute a new phase of matter, with insulating bulk and robust edge conductance that is immune to imperfections and disorder To date, topological protection is known to be a ubiquitous phenomenon, occurring in many physical settings, ranging from photonics and cold atoms to acoustic, mechanical, and elastic systems So far, however, most of these studies were carried out in entirely passive, linear, and conservative settings RATIONALE We propose topological insulator lasers: lasers whose lasing mode exhibits topologically protected transport without magnetic fields Extending topological physics to lasers is far from natural In fact, lasers are built on foundations that are seemingly inconsistent with the essence of topological insulators: They require gain (and thus are non-Hermitian), they are nonlinear entities because the gain must be saturable, and they are open systems because they emit light These properties, common to all lasers, cast major doubts on the possibility of harnessing topological features to make a topological insulator laser Despite this common mindset, we show that the use of topological properties leads to highly efficient lasers, robust to defects and disorder, with single-mode lasing even at conditions high above the laser threshold RESULTS We demonstrate that topological insulator lasers are theoretically possible and experimentally feasible We consider two configurations involving planar arrays of coupled active resonators The first is based on the Haldane model, archetypical for topological systems The second model, geared toward experiment, constitutes an aperiodic array architecture creating an artificial magnetic field We show that by introducing saturable gain and loss, it is possible to make these systems lase in a topological edge state In this way, the lasing mode exhibits topologically protected transport; the light propagates unidirectionally along the edges of the cavity, immune to scattering and disorder, unaffected by the shape of the edges Moreover, we show that the underlying topological properties not only make the system robust to fabrication and operational disorder and defects, they also lead to a highly efficient single-mode lasing that remains single-mode even at gain values high above the laser threshold The figure describes the geometry and features of a topological insulator laser based on the Haldane model while adding saturable gain, loss, and an output port The cavity is a planar honeycomb lattice of coupled microring resonators, pumped at the perimeter with a lossy interior We show that under these conditions, lasing occurs at the topological edge mode, which has unidirectional flux and is extended around the perimeter with almost-uniform intensity The topological cavities exhibit higher efficiency than the trivial cavity, even under strong disorder For the topological laser with a small gap, the topological protection holds as long as the disorder level is smaller than the gap size DISCUSSION The concept of the topological insulator laser alters current understanding of the interplay between disorder and lasing, and opens exciting possibilities at the interface of topological physics and laser science, such as topologically protected transport in systems with gain We show here that the laser system based on the archetypal Haldane model exhibits topologically protected transport, with features similar to those of its passive counterpart This behavior means that this system is likely to have topological invariants, despite the nonhermiticity Technologically, the topological insulator laser offers an avenue to make many semiconductor lasers operate as one single-mode high-power laser The topological insulator laser constructed from an aperiodic array of resonators was realized experimentally in an all-dielectric platform, as described in the accompanying experimental paper by Bandres et al

753 citations

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TL;DR: The experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that, in the presence of chiral-time symmetry, this non-Hermitian topological structure can experience phase transitions that are dictated by a complex geometric phase.

Abstract: We report the first observation of lasing topological edge states in a 1D Su-Schrieffer-Heeger active array of microring resonators. We show that the judicious use of non-Hermiticity can promote single edge-mode lasing in such arrays. Our experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that, in the presence of chiral-time symmetry, this non-Hermitian topological structure can experience phase transitions that are dictated by a complex geometric phase. Our work may pave the way towards understanding the fundamental aspects associated with the interplay among non-Hermiticity, nonlinearity, and topology in active systems.

479 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the possibilities for constructing Lagrangian descriptions of three-dimensional superconformal classical gauge theories that contain a Chern-Simons term, but no kinetic term, for the gauge fields are explored.

Abstract: We explore the possibilities for constructing Lagrangian descriptions of three-dimensional superconformal classical gauge theories that contain a Chern-Simons term, but no kinetic term, for the gauge fields. Classes of such theories with N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetry are found. However, interacting theories of this type with N = 8 supersymmetry do not exist.

394 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an exciton-polariton topological insulator was shown to be possible without a magnetic field in an array of semiconductor microcavities, where an applied magnetic field leads to the unidirectional flow of a polariton wavepacket around the edge of the array.

Abstract: Topological insulators—materials that are insulating in the bulk but allow electrons to flow on their surface—are striking examples of materials in which topological invariants are manifested in robustness against perturbations such as defects and disorder1. Their most prominent feature is the emergence of edge states at the boundary between areas with different topological properties. The observable physical effect is unidirectional robust transport of these edge states. Topological insulators were originally observed in the integer quantum Hall effect2 (in which conductance is quantized in a strong magnetic field) and subsequently suggested3–5 and observed6 to exist without a magnetic field, by virtue of other effects such as strong spin–orbit interaction. These were systems of correlated electrons. During the past decade, the concepts of topological physics have been introduced into other fields, including microwaves7,8, photonic systems9,10, cold atoms11,12, acoustics13,14 and even mechanics15. Recently, topological insulators were suggested to be possible in exciton-polariton systems16–18 organized as honeycomb (graphene-like) lattices, under the influence of a magnetic field. Exciton-polaritons are part-light, part-matter quasiparticles that emerge from strong coupling of quantum-well excitons and cavity photons19. Accordingly, the predicted topological effects differ from all those demonstrated thus far. Here we demonstrate experimentally an exciton-polariton topological insulator. Our lattice of coupled semiconductor microcavities is excited non-resonantly by a laser, and an applied magnetic field leads to the unidirectional flow of a polariton wavepacket around the edge of the array. This chiral edge mode is populated by a polariton condensation mechanism. We use scanning imaging techniques in real space and Fourier space to measure photoluminescence and thus visualize the mode as it propagates. We demonstrate that the topological edge mode goes around defects, and that its propagation direction can be reversed by inverting the applied magnetic field. Our exciton-polariton topological insulator paves the way for topological phenomena that involve light–matter interaction, amplification and the interaction of exciton-polaritons as a nonlinear many-body system. A part-light, part-matter exciton-polariton topological insulator is created in an array of semiconductor microcavities.

363 citations

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TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.

Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors constructed three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theories with gauge groups U(N) × U(n) and SU(N), SU(2) × SU (2) which have explicit = 6 superconformal symmetry.

Abstract: We construct three dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theories with gauge groups U(N) × U(N) and SU(N) × SU(N) which have explicit = 6 superconformal symmetry. Using brane constructions we argue that the U(N) × U(N) theory at level k describes the low energy limit of N M2-branes probing a C4/Zk singularity. At large N the theory is then dual to M-theory on AdS4 × S7/Zk. The theory also has a 't Hooft limit (of large N with a fixed ratio N/k) which is dual to type IIA string theory on AdS4 × CP3. For k = 1 the theory is conjectured to describe N M2-branes in flat space, although our construction realizes explicitly only six of the eight supersymmetries. We give some evidence for this conjecture, which is similar to the evidence for mirror symmetry in d = 3 gauge theories. When the gauge group is SU(2) × SU(2) our theory has extra symmetries and becomes identical to the Bagger-Lambert theory.

3,091 citations

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TL;DR: Topological photonics is a rapidly emerging field of research in which geometrical and topological ideas are exploited to design and control the behavior of light as mentioned in this paper, which holds great promise for applications.

Abstract: Topological photonics is a rapidly emerging field of research in which geometrical and topological ideas are exploited to design and control the behavior of light. Drawing inspiration from the discovery of the quantum Hall effects and topological insulators in condensed matter, recent advances have shown how to engineer analogous effects also for photons, leading to remarkable phenomena such as the robust unidirectional propagation of light, which hold great promise for applications. Thanks to the flexibility and diversity of photonics systems, this field is also opening up new opportunities to realize exotic topological models and to probe and exploit topological effects in new ways. This article reviews experimental and theoretical developments in topological photonics across a wide range of experimental platforms, including photonic crystals, waveguides, metamaterials, cavities, optomechanics, silicon photonics, and circuit QED. A discussion of how changing the dimensionality and symmetries of photonics systems has allowed for the realization of different topological phases is offered, and progress in understanding the interplay of topology with non-Hermitian effects, such as dissipation, is reviewed. As an exciting perspective, topological photonics can be combined with optical nonlinearities, leading toward new collective phenomena and novel strongly correlated states of light, such as an analog of the fractional quantum Hall effect.

3,052 citations

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TL;DR: This work proposes and experimentally demonstrate a photonic topological insulator free of external fields and with scatter-free edge transport—a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges.

Abstract: Topological insulators are a new phase of matter, with the striking property that conduction of electrons occurs only on their surfaces. In two dimensions, electrons on the surface of a topological insulator are not scattered despite defects and disorder, providing robustness akin to that of superconductors. Topological insulators are predicted to have wide-ranging applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing and spintronics. Substantial effort has been directed towards realizing topological insulators for electromagnetic waves. One-dimensional systems with topological edge states have been demonstrated, but these states are zero-dimensional and therefore exhibit no transport properties. Topological protection of microwaves has been observed using a mechanism similar to the quantum Hall effect, by placing a gyromagnetic photonic crystal in an external magnetic field. But because magnetic effects are very weak at optical frequencies, realizing photonic topological insulators with scatter-free edge states requires a fundamentally different mechanism-one that is free of magnetic fields. A number of proposals for photonic topological transport have been put forward recently. One suggested temporal modulation of a photonic crystal, thus breaking time-reversal symmetry and inducing one-way edge states. This is in the spirit of the proposed Floquet topological insulators, in which temporal variations in solid-state systems induce topological edge states. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic topological insulator free of external fields and with scatter-free edge transport-a photonic lattice exhibiting topologically protected transport of visible light on the lattice edges. Our system is composed of an array of evanescently coupled helical waveguides arranged in a graphene-like honeycomb lattice. Paraxial diffraction of light is described by a Schrodinger equation where the propagation coordinate (z) acts as 'time'. Thus the helicity of the waveguides breaks z-reversal symmetry as proposed for Floquet topological insulators. This structure results in one-way edge states that are topologically protected from scattering.

2,483 citations