Mildred S. Dresselhaus
Other affiliations: University of California, Los Angeles, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign ...read more
Bio: Mildred S. Dresselhaus is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Carbon nanotube & Raman spectroscopy. The author has an hindex of 136, co-authored 762 publications receiving 112525 citations. Previous affiliations of Mildred S. Dresselhaus include University of California, Los Angeles & Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The transparency, conductivity, and ambipolar transfer characteristics of the films suggest their potential as another materials candidate for electronics and opto-electronic applications.
Abstract: In this work we present a low cost and scalable technique, via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on polycrystalline Ni films, to fabricate large area (∼cm2) films of single- to few-layer graphene and to transfer the films to nonspecific substrates. These films consist of regions of 1 to ∼12 graphene layers. Single- or bilayer regions can be up to 20 μm in lateral size. The films are continuous over the entire area and can be patterned lithographically or by prepatterning the underlying Ni film. The transparency, conductivity, and ambipolar transfer characteristics of the films suggest their potential as another materials candidate for electronics and opto-electronic applications.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the first-order and double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features and give special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal configuration.
Abstract: Recent Raman scattering studies in different types of graphene samples are reviewed here. We first discuss the first-order and the double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. The determination of the number of layers in few-layer graphene is discussed, giving special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal (AB) configuration. Different types of graphene samples produced both by exfoliation and using epitaxial methods are described and their Raman spectra are compared with those of 3D crystalline graphite and turbostratic graphite, in which the layers are stacked with rotational disorder. We show that Resonance Raman studies, where the energy of the excitation laser line can be tuned continuously, can be used to probe electrons and phonons near the Dirac point of graphene and, in particular allowing a determination to be made of the tight-binding parameters for bilayer graphene. The special process of electron–phonon interaction that renormalizes the phonon energy giving rise to the Kohn anomaly is discussed, and is illustrated by gated experiments where the position of the Fermi level can be changed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the ability of distinguishing armchair and zig-zag edges by Raman spectroscopy and studies in graphene nanoribbons in which the Raman signal is enhanced due to resonance with singularities in the density of electronic states.
TL;DR: Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation.
Abstract: The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in bismuth antimony telluride (BiSbTe) bulk alloys has remained around 1 for more than 50 years. We show that a peak ZT of 1.4 at 100°C can be achieved in a p-type nanocrystalline BiSbTe bulk alloy. These nanocrystalline bulk materials were made by hot pressing nanopowders that were ball-milled from crystalline ingots under inert conditions. Electrical transport measurements, coupled with microstructure studies and modeling, show that the ZT improvement is the result of low thermal conductivity caused by the increased phonon scattering by grain boundaries and defects. More importantly, ZT is about 1.2 at room temperature and 0.8 at 250°C, which makes these materials useful for cooling and power generation. Cooling devices that use these materials have produced high-temperature differences of 86°, 106°, and 119°C with hot-side temperatures set at 50°, 100°, and 150°C, respectively. This discovery sets the stage for use of a new nanocomposite approach in developing high-performance low-cost bulk thermoelectric materials.
TL;DR: The use of Raman spectroscopy to reveal the remarkable structure and the unusual electronic and phonon properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is reviewed comprehensively in this article.
Abstract: The use of Raman spectroscopy to reveal the remarkable structure and the unusual electronic and phonon properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is reviewed comprehensively. The various types of Raman scattering processes relevant to carbon nanotubes are reviewed, and the theoretical foundations for these topics are presented. The most common experimental techniques used to probe carbon nanotubes are summarized, followed by a review of the novel experimental findings for each of the features in the first order and second order Raman spectra for single wall carbon nanotubes. These results are presented and discussed in connection with theoretical considerations. Raman spectra for bundles of SWNTs, for SWNTs surrounded by various common wrapping agents, and for isolated SWNTs at the single nanotube level are reviewed. Some of the current research challenges facing the field are briefly summarized.
TL;DR: It is found that a non-negligible edge state survives even in graphene ribbons with less developed zigzag edges, when the system size is on a nanometer scale.
Abstract: Finite graphite systems having a zigzag edge exhibit a special edge state. The corresponding energy bands are almost flat at the Fermi level and thereby give a sharp peak in the density of states. The charge density in the edge state is strongly localized on the zigzag edge sites. No such localized state appears in graphite systems having an armchair edge. By utilizing the graphene ribbon model, we discuss the effect of the system size and edge shape on the special edge state. By varying the width of the graphene ribbons, we find that the nanometer size effect is crucial for determining the relative importance of the edge state. We also have extended the graphene ribbon to have edges of a general shape, which is defined as a mixture of zigzag and armchair sites. Examining the relative importance of the edge state for graphene ribbons with general edges, we find that a non-negligible edge state survives even in graphene ribbons with less developed zigzag edges. We demonstrate that such an edge shape with three or four zigzag sites per sequence is sufficient to show an edge state, when the system size is on a nanometer scale. The special characteristics of the edge state play a large role in determining the density of states near the Fermi level for graphite networks on a nanometer scale.
TL;DR: Monocrystalline graphitic films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect.
Abstract: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
TL;DR: Iijima et al. as mentioned in this paper reported the preparation of a new type of finite carbon structure consisting of needle-like tubes, which were produced using an arc-discharge evaporation method similar to that used for fullerene synthesis.
Abstract: THE synthesis of molecular carbon structures in the form of C60 and other fullerenes1 has stimulated intense interest in the structures accessible to graphitic carbon sheets. Here I report the preparation of a new type of finite carbon structure consisting of needle-like tubes. Produced using an arc-discharge evaporation method similar to that used for fullerene synthesis, the needles grow at the negative end of the electrode used for the arc discharge. Electron microscopy reveals that each needle comprises coaxial tubes of graphitic sheets, ranging in number from 2 up to about 50. On each tube the carbon-atom hexagons are arranged in a helical fashion about the needle axis. The helical pitch varies from needle to needle and from tube to tube within a single needle. It appears that this helical structure may aid the growth process. The formation of these needles, ranging from a few to a few tens of nanometres in diameter, suggests that engineering of carbon structures should be possible on scales considerably greater than those relevant to the fullerenes. On 7 November 1991, Sumio Iijima announced in Nature the preparation of nanometre-size, needle-like tubes of carbon — now familiar as 'nanotubes'. Used in microelectronic circuitry and microscopy, and as a tool to test quantum mechanics and model biological systems, nanotubes seem to have unlimited potential.
TL;DR: Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments.
Abstract: Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and condensed-matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality, and, despite its short history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed-matter physics, where quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high-energy physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile ground for applications.
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations, are discussed.
Abstract: This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge (surface) states in graphene depend on the edge termination (zigzag or armchair) and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.