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Author

Min Wu

Other affiliations: NEC, University of Baltimore, Georgia Institute of Technology  ...read more
Bio: Min Wu is an academic researcher from University of Maryland, College Park. The author has contributed to research in topics: Digital watermarking & Information hiding. The author has an hindex of 52, co-authored 256 publications receiving 9914 citations. Previous affiliations of Min Wu include NEC & University of Baltimore.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
Ching-Yung Lin1, Min Wu2, Jeffrey Adam Bloom2, Ingemar J. Cox, Matthew L. Miller, Yui Man Lui 
IBM1, NEC2
TL;DR: It is shown that the watermark is robust to rotation, scale, and translation, and tests examining the watermarks resistance to cropping and JPEG compression.
Abstract: Many electronic watermarks for still images and video content are sensitive to geometric distortions. For example, simple rotation, scaling, and/or translation (RST) of an image can prevent blind detection of a public watermark. In this paper, we propose a watermarking algorithm that is robust to RST distortions. The watermark is embedded into a one-dimensional (1-D) signal obtained by taking the Fourier transform of the image, resampling the Fourier magnitudes into log-polar coordinates, and then summing a function of those magnitudes along the log-radius axis. Rotation of the image results in a cyclical shift of the extracted signal. Scaling of the image results in amplification of the extracted signal, and translation of the image has no effect on the extracted signal. We can therefore compensate for rotation with a simple search, and compensate for scaling by using the correlation coefficient as the detection measure. False positive results on a database of 10 000 images are reported. Robustness results on a database of 2000 images are described. It is shown that the watermark is robust to rotation, scale, and translation. In addition, we describe tests examining the watermarks resistance to cropping and JPEG compression.

714 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A novel algorithm for generating an image hash based on Fourier transform features and controlled randomization is developed and it is shown that the proposed hash function is resilient to content-preserving modifications, such as moderate geometric and filtering distortions.
Abstract: Image hash functions find extensive applications in content authentication, database search, and watermarking. This paper develops a novel algorithm for generating an image hash based on Fourier transform features and controlled randomization. We formulate the robustness of image hashing as a hypothesis testing problem and evaluate the performance under various image processing operations. We show that the proposed hash function is resilient to content-preserving modifications, such as moderate geometric and filtering distortions. We introduce a general framework to study and evaluate the security of image hashing systems. Under this new framework, we model the hash values as random variables and quantify its uncertainty in terms of differential entropy. Using this security framework, we analyze the security of the proposed schemes and several existing representative methods for image hashing. We then examine the security versus robustness tradeoff and show that the proposed hashing methods can provide excellent security and robustness.

542 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work investigates the problem of designing fingerprints that can withstand collusion and allow for the identification of colluders, and proposes a new class of codes, called anti-collusion codes (ACCs), which have the property that the composition of any subset of K or fewer codevectors is unique.
Abstract: Digital fingerprinting is a technique for identifying users who use multimedia content for unintended purposes, such as redistribution. These fingerprints are typically embedded into the content using watermarking techniques that are designed to be robust to a variety of attacks. A cost-effective attack against such digital fingerprints is collusion, where several differently marked copies of the same content are combined to disrupt the underlying fingerprints. We investigate the problem of designing fingerprints that can withstand collusion and allow for the identification of colluders. We begin by introducing the collusion problem for additive embedding. We then study the effect that averaging collusion has on orthogonal modulation. We introduce a tree-structured detection algorithm for identifying the fingerprints associated with K colluders that requires O(Klog(n/K)) correlations for a group of n users. We next develop a fingerprinting scheme based on code modulation that does not require as many basis signals as orthogonal modulation. We propose a new class of codes, called anti-collusion codes (ACCs), which have the property that the composition of any subset of K or fewer codevectors is unique. Using this property, we can therefore identify groups of K or fewer colluders. We present a construction of binary-valued ACC under the logical AND operation that uses the theory of combinatorial designs and is suitable for both the on-off keying and antipodal form of binary code modulation. In order to accommodate n users, our code construction requires only O(/spl radic/n) orthogonal signals for a given number of colluders. We introduce three different detection strategies that can be used with our ACC for identifying a suspect set of colluders. We demonstrate the performance of our ACC for fingerprinting multimedia and identifying colluders through experiments using Gaussian signals and real images.

421 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Min Wu1, Bede Liu1
TL;DR: The proposed data embedding method can be used to detect unauthorized use of a digitized signature, and annotate or authenticate binary documents, and presents analysis and discussions on robustness and security issues.
Abstract: This paper proposes a new method to embed data in binary images, including scanned text, figures, and signatures. The method manipulates "flippable" pixels to enforce specific block-based relationship in order to embed a significant amount of data without causing noticeable artifacts. Shuffling is applied before embedding to equalize the uneven embedding capacity from region to region. The hidden data can be extracted without using the original image, and can also be accurately extracted after high quality printing and scanning with the help of a few registration marks. The proposed data embedding method can be used to detect unauthorized use of a digitized signature, and annotate or authenticate binary documents. The paper also presents analysis and discussions on robustness and security issues.

395 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overview on what has been done over the last decade in the new and emerging field of information forensics regarding theories, methodologies, state-of-the-art techniques, major applications, and to provide an outlook of the future is provided.
Abstract: In recent decades, we have witnessed the evolution of information technologies from the development of VLSI technologies, to communication and networking infrastructure, to the standardization of multimedia compression and coding schemes, to effective multimedia content search and retrieval. As a result, multimedia devices and digital content have become ubiquitous. This path of technological evolution has naturally led to a critical issue that must be addressed next, namely, to ensure that content, devices, and intellectual property are being used by authorized users for legitimate purposes, and to be able to forensically prove with high confidence when otherwise. When security is compromised, intellectual rights are violated, or authenticity is forged, forensic methodologies and tools are employed to reconstruct what has happened to digital content in order to answer who has done what, when, where, and how. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview on what has been done over the last decade in the new and emerging field of information forensics regarding theories, methodologies, state-of-the-art techniques, major applications, and to provide an outlook of the future.

340 citations


Cited by
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Book
24 Oct 2001
TL;DR: Digital Watermarking covers the crucial research findings in the field and explains the principles underlying digital watermarking technologies, describes the requirements that have given rise to them, and discusses the diverse ends to which these technologies are being applied.
Abstract: Digital watermarking is a key ingredient to copyright protection. It provides a solution to illegal copying of digital material and has many other useful applications such as broadcast monitoring and the recording of electronic transactions. Now, for the first time, there is a book that focuses exclusively on this exciting technology. Digital Watermarking covers the crucial research findings in the field: it explains the principles underlying digital watermarking technologies, describes the requirements that have given rise to them, and discusses the diverse ends to which these technologies are being applied. As a result, additional groundwork is laid for future developments in this field, helping the reader understand and anticipate new approaches and applications.

2,849 citations

01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a scenario where a group of people are attempting to find a solution to the problem of "finding the needle in a haystack" in the environment.
Abstract: 中枢神経系疾患の治療は正常細胞(ニューロン)の機能維持を目的とするが,脳血管障害のように機能障害の原因が細胞の死滅に基づくことは多い.一方,脳腫瘍の治療においては薬物療法や放射線療法といった腫瘍細胞の死滅を目標とするものが大きな位置を占める.いずれの場合にも,細胞死の機序を理解することは各種病態や治療法の理解のうえで重要である.現在のところ最も研究の進んでいる細胞死の型はアポトーシスである.そのなかで重要な位置を占めるミトコンドリアにおける反応および抗アポトーシス因子について概要を紹介する.

2,716 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

2,415 citations

Book
23 Nov 2007
TL;DR: This new edition now contains essential information on steganalysis and steganography, and digital watermark embedding is given a complete update with new processes and applications.
Abstract: Digital audio, video, images, and documents are flying through cyberspace to their respective owners. Unfortunately, along the way, individuals may choose to intervene and take this content for themselves. Digital watermarking and steganography technology greatly reduces the instances of this by limiting or eliminating the ability of third parties to decipher the content that he has taken. The many techiniques of digital watermarking (embedding a code) and steganography (hiding information) continue to evolve as applications that necessitate them do the same. The authors of this second edition provide an update on the framework for applying these techniques that they provided researchers and professionals in the first well-received edition. Steganography and steganalysis (the art of detecting hidden information) have been added to a robust treatment of digital watermarking, as many in each field research and deal with the other. New material includes watermarking with side information, QIM, and dirty-paper codes. The revision and inclusion of new material by these influential authors has created a must-own book for anyone in this profession. *This new edition now contains essential information on steganalysis and steganography *New concepts and new applications including QIM introduced *Digital watermark embedding is given a complete update with new processes and applications

1,773 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 1999
TL;DR: The basic concepts of watermarking systems are outlined and illustrated with proposed water marking methods for images, video, audio, text documents, and other media.
Abstract: Multimedia watermarking technology has evolved very quickly during the last few years. A digital watermark is information that is imperceptibly and robustly embedded in the host data such that it cannot be removed. A watermark typically contains information about the origin, status, or recipient of the host data. In this tutorial paper, the requirements and applications for watermarking are reviewed. Applications include copyright protection, data monitoring, and data tracking. The basic concepts of watermarking systems are outlined and illustrated with proposed watermarking methods for images, video, audio, text documents, and other media. Robustness and security aspects are discussed in detail. Finally, a few remarks are made about the state of the art and possible future developments in watermarking technology.

1,447 citations