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Mina Desai

Bio: Mina Desai is an academic researcher from Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Offspring & Cervical screening. The author has an hindex of 55, co-authored 198 publications receiving 10015 citations. Previous affiliations of Mina Desai include Manchester Royal Infirmary & University of California, Los Angeles.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparison of the detection rate and positive predictive values of HPV assay with cytology and the best management strategy for HPV-positive women found HPV testing was more sensitive than borderline or worse cytology but less specific for detecting CIN2+.

568 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Permanent growth retardation was evident in offspring subjected to maternal protein restriction during the postnatal period in Rats, a rat model established to investigate links between impaired growth during early life and the development of diseases, including diabetes, much later in life.
Abstract: Recent epidemiological studies in people whose birth weights were recorded many years ago suggest links between impaired growth during early life and the development of diseases, including diabetes, much later in life. The long-term effects of retarded early growth are proposed to result from malnutrition at critical periods of fetal or infant development leading to reduction in the growth of organs and permanent changes in their metabolism or structure, or both. In order to investigate this, a rat model was established which involved feeding either a diet containing 200 g protein/kg or an isoenergetic diet containing 80 g protein/kg to pregnant and lactating rats. In addition, cross-fostering techniques were employed which allowed a separate evaluation of the prenatal or the postnatal periods. The offspring were studied at 21 d of age or were weaned onto a normal laboratory chow and studied at 11 months of age. The 80 g protein/kg diet during pregnancy did not affect the overall reproductive although more subtle differences were evident. Permanent growth retardation was evident in offspring subjected to maternal protein restriction during the postnatal period. At 21 d of age the offspring of protein-restricted mothers exhibited selective changes in organ growth: compared with the body weight, the lung and brain experienced a smaller decrease in weight: the heart, kidney and thymus decreased proportionately: whereas, the pancreas, spleen, muscle and liver showed a greater reduction in weight. In older animals the muscle weight was lower in the male rats and the relative weight of pancreas was increased in the female rats.

377 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: LBC combined with HPV testing resulted in a significantly lower detection rate of CIN3+ in the second round of screening compared with LBC screening alone, but the effect was small.
Abstract: Summary Background Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is reportedly more sensitive than cytology for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The effectiveness of HPV testing in primary cervical screening was assessed in the ARTISTIC trial, which was done over two screening rounds approximately 3 years apart (2001–03 and 2004–07) by comparing liquid-based cytology (LBC) combined with HPV testing against LBC alone. Methods Women aged 20–64 years who were undergoing routine screening as part of the English National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester were randomly assigned (between July, 2001, and September, 2003) in a ratio of 3:1 to either combined LBC and HPV testing in which the results were revealed and acted on, or to combined LBC and HPV testing where the HPV result was concealed from the patient and investigator. The primary outcome was the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in the second screening round, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN25417821. Findings There were 24 510 eligible women at entry (18 386 in the revealed group, 6124 in the concealed group). In the first round of screening 233 women (1·27%) in the revealed group had CIN3+, compared with 80 (1·31%) women in the concealed group (odds ratio [OR] 0·97, 95% CI 0·75–1·25; p>0·2). There was an unexpectedly large drop in the proportion of women with CIN3+ between the first and second rounds of screening in both groups, at 0·25% (29 of 11 676) in the revealed group and 0·47% (18 of 3866 women) in the concealed group (OR 0·53, 95% CI 0·30–0·96; p=0·042). For both rounds combined, the proportion of women with CIN3+ were 1·51% (revealed) and 1·77% (concealed) (OR 0·85, 95% CI 0·67–1·08; p>0·2). Interpretation LBC combined with HPV testing resulted in a significantly lower detection rate of CIN3+ in the second round of screening compared with LBC screening alone, but the effect was small. Over the two screening rounds combined, co-testing did not detect a higher rate of CIN3+ or CIN2+ than LBC alone. Potential changes in screening methodology should be assessed over at least two screening rounds. Funding National Institute of Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.

363 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restrestr...
Abstract: The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restr...

325 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The degree of newborn nutrient enhancement and timing of IUGR newborn catch-up growth may determine the programming of orexigenic hormones and offspring obesity.
Abstract: The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns. Pregnant rats received, from day 10 to term gestation and throughout lactation, ad libitum food (AdLib) or 50% food restriction (FR) to produce IUGR newborns. AdLib vs. FR offspring were studied at day 1, and, to create two distinct groups of newborn catch-up growth (immediate, delayed) among the IUGR newborns, cross-fostering techniques were employed. The four groups of pups at 3 wk were IUGR immediate catch-up growth (FR/AdLib), IUGR delayed catch-up growth (FR/ FR), control (AdLib/AdLib), and lactation FR control (AdLib/FR). From 3 wk to 9 mo, all offspring had AdLib rat chow. Maternal FR during pregnancy resulted in IUGR pups (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 7.1 ± 0.3 g, P < 0.01) with decreased leptin (0.66 ± 0.03 vs. 1.63 ± 0.12 ng/ml, P < 0.001) and increased ghrelin (0.43 ± 0.03 vs. 0.26 ± 0.02 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Maternal FR during lactation (FR/FR) further impaired IUGR offspring growth at 3 wk. However, by 9 mo, these pups attained normal body weight, percent body fat, and plasma leptin levels. Conversely, IUGR offspring nursed by AdLib dams (FR/ AdLib) exhibited rapid catch-up growth at 3 wk and continued accelerated growth, resulting in increased weight, percent body fat, and plasma leptin levels. Thus the degree of newborn nutrient enhancement and timing of IUGR newborn catch-up growth may determine the programming of orexigenic hormones and offspring obesity.

313 citations


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01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care.
Abstract: XI. STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING DIABETES CARE D iabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payors, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. These standards are not intended to preclude more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information, refer to Bode (Ed.): Medical Management of Type 1 Diabetes (1), Burant (Ed): Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes (2), and Klingensmith (Ed): Intensive Diabetes Management (3). The recommendations included are diagnostic and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and modeled after existing methods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E.

9,618 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The technical aspects involved are discussed, conventional and kinetic RT-PCR methods for quantitating gene expression are contrasted, and the usefulness of these assays are illustrated by demonstrating the significantly different levels of transcription between individuals of the housekeeping gene family, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).
Abstract: The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most sensitive method for the detection of low-abundance mRNA, often obtained from limited tissue samples. However, it is a complex technique, there are substantial problems associated with its true sensitivity, reproducibility and specificity and, as a quantitative method, it suffers from the problems inherent in PCR. The recent introduction of fluorescence-based kinetic RT-PCR procedures significantly simplifies the process of producing reproducible quantification of mRNAs and promises to overcome these limitations. Nevertheless, their successful application depends on a clear understanding of the practical problems, and careful experimental design, application and validation remain essential for accurate quantitative measurements of transcription. This review discusses the technical aspects involved, contrasts conventional and kinetic RT-PCR methods for quantitating gene expression and compares the different kinetic RT-PCR systems. It illustrates the usefulness of these assays by demonstrating the significantly different levels of transcription between individuals of the housekeeping gene family, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

4,100 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that damage suffered in early life leads to permanent impairment, and might also affect future generations, as undernutrition is associated with lower human capital and its prevention will probably bring about important health, educational, and economic benefits.

3,341 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence from several disciplines is synthesized to support the contention that environmental factors acting during development should be accorded greater weight in models of disease causation.
Abstract: Many lines of evidence, including epidemiologic data and extensive clinical and experimental studies, indicate that early life events play a powerful role in influencing later susceptibility to certain chronic diseases. This review synthesizes evidence from several disciplines to support the contention that environmental factors acting during development should be accorded greater weight in models of disease causation.

3,290 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Evidence is provided for the importance of parental care as a mediator of the effects of environmental adversity on neural development and patterns of maternal care that increase stress reactivity in offspring are enhanced by stressors imposed on the mother.
Abstract: Naturally occurring variations in maternal care alter the expression of genes that regulate behavioral and endocrine responses to stress, as well as hippocampal synaptic development. These effects form the basis for the development of stable, individual differences in stress reactivity and certain forms of cognition. Maternal care also influences the maternal behavior of female offspring, an effect that appears to be related to oxytocin receptor gene expression, and which forms the basis for the intergenerational transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity. Patterns of maternal care that increase stress reactivity in offspring are enhanced by stressors imposed on the mother. These findings provide evidence for the importance of parental care as a mediator of the effects of environmental adversity on neural development.

2,526 citations