Other affiliations: University of Manchester, University of Sheffield, University of Nottingham ...read more
Bio: Mingwen Bai is an academic researcher from Coventry University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Coating & Thermal spraying. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 46 publications receiving 746 citations. Previous affiliations of Mingwen Bai include University of Manchester & University of Sheffield.
TL;DR: Inherently hydrophilic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles can be used to prepare stable dodecane- water and silicone-water emulsions, but they cannot stabilize butyl butyrate-water and decanol-water mixtures with macroscopic phase separation occurring, which is in good agreement with the contact angle data.
Abstract: Superparamagnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles prepared by a classical coprecipitation method were used as the stabilizer to prepare magnetic Pickering emulsions, and the effects of particle concentration, oil/water volume ratio, and oil polarity on the type, stability, composition, and morphology of these functional emulsions were investigated. The three-phase contact angle (θ(ow)) of the Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles at the oil-water interface was evaluated using the Washburn method, and the results showed that for nonpolar and weakly polar oils of dodecane and silicone, θ(ow) is close to 90°, whereas for strongly polar oils of butyl butyrate and 1-decanol, θ(ow) is far below 90°. Inherently hydrophilic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles can be used to prepare stable dodecane-water and silicone-water emulsions, but they cannot stabilize butyl butyrate-water and decanol-water mixtures with macroscopic phase separation occurring, which is in good agreement with the contact angle data. Emulsions are of the oil-in-water type for both dodecane and silicone oil, and the average droplet size increases with an increase in the oil volume fraction. For stable emulsions, not all of the particles are adsorbed to drop interfaces; the fraction adsorbed decreases with an increase in the initial oil volume fraction. Changes in the particle concentration have no obvious influence on the stability of these emulsions, even though the droplet size decreases with concentration.
TL;DR: The design and fabricate of a carbide coating that displays superior ablation resistance at temperatures from 2,000–3,000 °C, compared to existing ultra-high temperature ceramics, which results in much slower loss of protective oxide layers formed during ablation than other ceramic systems, leading to the superior ablator resistance.
Abstract: Ultra-high temperature ceramics are desirable for applications in the hypersonic vehicle, rockets, re-entry spacecraft and defence sectors, but few materials can currently satisfy the associated high temperature ablation requirements. Here we design and fabricate a carbide (Zr0.8Ti0.2C0.74B0.26) coating by reactive melt infiltration and pack cementation onto a C/C composite. It displays superior ablation resistance at temperatures from 2,000–3,000 °C, compared to existing ultra-high temperature ceramics (for example, a rate of material loss over 12 times better than conventional zirconium carbide at 2,500 °C). The carbide is a substitutional solid solution of Zr–Ti containing carbon vacancies that are randomly occupied by boron atoms. The sealing ability of the ceramic’s oxides, slow oxygen diffusion and a dense and gradient distribution of ceramic result in much slower loss of protective oxide layers formed during ablation than other ceramic systems, leading to the superior ablation resistance. Hypersonic and aerospace applications motivate development of materials with improved resistance against ablation and oxidation at high temperatures. Here authors demonstrate a quaternary carbide, where sealing by surface oxides, slow oxygen diffusion and a graded structure yield improved ablation resistance over established ceramics.
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of experimental observations on surface rumpling of an initially flat NiCoCrAlY coating deposited on a Ni-based superalloy during cyclic oxidation at 1150°C were presented.
Abstract: We present a series of experimental observations on surface rumpling of an initially flat NiCoCrAlY coating deposited on a Ni-based superalloy during cyclic oxidation at 1150 °C. The extent of rumpling of the coating depends on the thermal history, coating thickness and exposed atmosphere. While the coating surface progressively roughens with cyclic oxidation, the bulk NiCoCrAlY alloys with the same nominal composition are much less susceptible to rumpling under the same oxidation conditions. The coatings, especially the thin ones, experience substantial degradation (e.g. β to γ phase transformation) induced by oxidation and coating/subsatrate interdiffusion. The observations together suggest that rumpling of the NiCoCrAlY coating is driven by a combination of the lateral growth of the thermally grown oxide and coating/substrate thermal mismatch. The results in this work are further discussed and compared with the rumpling behaviour of a β-(Ni,Pt)Al bond coat reported in the literature to illustrate the importance of possible factors in governing the development of rumpling in the NiCoCrAlY coating.
TL;DR: In this article, the anomalous cyclic coarsening behavior of Ni-based superalloys was investigated using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging combined with absorption-corrected energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.
Abstract: The anomalous cyclic coarsening behaviour of γ′ precipitates after ageing at 1073 K has been investigated for the low misfit commercial powder metallurgy (PM) Ni-based superalloy RR1000. Using scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) imaging combined with absorption-corrected energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, the elemental segregation as a function of coarsening behaviour has been experimentally observed for secondary γ′ precipitates. Elemental EDX spectrum imaging has revealed nanoscale enrichment of Co and Cr and a depletion of Al and Ti within the γ matrix close to the γ-γʹ interface. Our experimental results, coupled with complementary modelling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction analysis, demonstrate the importance of elastic strain energy resulting from local compositional variations for influencing precipitate morphology. In particular, elemental inhomogeneities, as a result of complex diffusive interactions within both matrix and precipitates, play a crucial role in determining the rate of coarsening. Our findings provide important new evidence for understanding the microstructural evolution observed for advanced superalloys when they are exposed to different heat treatment regimes.
TL;DR: In this paper, β-NiAl coatings were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying onto 304 stainless steels for protection against chlorine induced corrosion in a biomass-fired boiler.
Abstract: Alumina-forming β-NiAl coatings were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying onto 304 stainless steels for protection against chlorine induced corrosion in a biomass-fired boiler. The corrosion test was conducted in a synthetic gas containing 500 ppm HCl with 10 wt% KCl ash deposit at 700 °C for 250 h. Severe corrosion was observed with the fast growing alumina at the coating/substrate interface initiating from sample edges. Possible corrosion mechanism was proposed: as supplied by HCl/KCl, the formation of volatile chlorine/chloride acted as a catalyst and promoted the growth of alumina at relatively lower application temperatures (
06 Apr 2016
TL;DR: Marshall has unique expertise in leveraging new digital tools, 3D printing, and other advanced manufacturing technologies and applying them to propulsion systems design and other aerospace materials to meet NASA mission and industry needs.
Abstract: Propulsion system development requires new, more affordable manufacturing techniques and technologies in a constrained budget environment, while future in-space applications will require in-space manufacturing and assembly of parts and systems. Marshall is advancing cuttingedge commercial capabilities in additive and digital manufacturing and applying them to aerospace challenges. The Center is developing the standards by which new manufacturing processes and parts will be tested and qualified. Rapidly evolving digital tools, such as additive manufacturing, are the leading edge of a revolution in the design and manufacture of space systems that enables rapid prototyping and reduces production times. Marshall has unique expertise in leveraging new digital tools, 3D printing, and other advanced manufacturing technologies and applying them to propulsion systems design and other aerospace materials to meet NASA mission and industry needs. Marshall is helping establish the standards and qualifications “from art to part” for the use of these advanced techniques and the parts produced using them in aerospace or elsewhere in the U.S. industrial base.
TL;DR: An overview of Pickering emulsions is given, focusing on some kinds of solid particles commonly serving as emulsifiers, three main types of products from PickeringEmulsions, morphology ofSolid particles and as-prepared materials, as well as applications in different fields.
Abstract: Pickering emulsion, a kind of emulsion stabilized only by solid particles locating at oil-water interface, has been discovered a century ago, while being extensively studied in recent decades. Substituting solid particles for traditional surfactants, Pickering emulsions are more stable against coalescence and can obtain many useful properties. Besides, they are more biocompatible when solid particles employed are relatively safe in vivo. Pickering emulsions can be applied in a wide range of fields, such as biomedicine, food, fine chemical synthesis, cosmetics and so on, by properly tuning types and properties of solid emulsifiers. In this article, we give an overview of Pickering emulsions, focusing on some kinds of solid particles commonly serving as emulsifiers, three main types of products from Pickering emulsions, morphology of solid particles and as-prepared materials, as well as applications in different fields.
TL;DR: This paper provides a concise and comprehensive review of Pickering emulsion systems that possess the ability to respond to an array of external triggers, including pH, temperature, CO2 concentration, light intensity, ionic strength, and magnetic field.
Abstract: Pickering emulsions possess many advantages over traditional surfactant stabilized emulsions. For example, Pickering emulsions impart better stability against coalescence and, in many cases, are biologically compatible and environmentally friendly. These characteristics open the door for their use in a variety of industries spanning petroleum, food, biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Depending on the application, rapid, but controlled stabilization and destabilization of an emulsion may be necessary. As a result, Pickering emulsions with stimuli-responsive properties have, in recent years, received a considerable amounts of attention. This paper provides a concise and comprehensive review of Pickering emulsion systems that possess the ability to respond to an array of external triggers, including pH, temperature, CO2 concentration, light intensity, ionic strength, and magnetic field. Potential applications for which stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsion systems would be of particular value, such as emulsion polymerization, enhanced oil recovery, catalyst recovery, and cosmetics, are discussed.
TL;DR: It is obvious that microgels as soft, porous particles are significantly different from classical rigid colloidal stabilizers in Pickering emulsions and it is suggested avoiding the term PickeringEmulsions when swollen micro gels are employed.
Abstract: Recent studies revealing the unique properties of microgel-stabilized responsive emulsions are discussed, and microgels are compared to classical rigid-particle Pickering stabilizers. Microgels are strongly swollen, lyophilic particles that become deformed at the oil-water interface and protrude only a little into the oil phase. Temperature- and pH-sensitive microgels allow us to prepare temperature- and pH-sensitive emulsions and thus enable us to prepare and break emulsions on demand. Although such emulsions are sensitive to pH, the stabilization of droplets is not due to electrostatic repulsion, instead the viscoelastic properties of the interface seem to dominate droplet stability. Being soft and porous, microgels behave distinctly differently from rigid particles at the interface: they are deformed and strongly flattened especially in the case of oil-in-water emulsions. The microgels are located mainly on the water side of the interface for both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. In contrast to rigid, solid particles, the behavior of microgels at oil-water interfaces does not depend only on the interfacial tension but also on the balance among the interfacial tension, swelling, elasticity, and deformability of the microgel, which needs to be considered. It is obvious that microgels as soft, porous particles are significantly different from classical rigid colloidal stabilizers in Pickering emulsions and we suggest avoiding the term Pickering emulsion when swollen microgels are employed. Microgel-stabilized emulsions require the development of new theoretical models to understand their properties. They open the door to new sophisticated applications.