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Miriam Baeta

Bio: Miriam Baeta is an academic researcher from University of the Basque Country. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Haplogroup. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 43 publications receiving 525 citations. Previous affiliations of Miriam Baeta include American Board of Legal Medicine & University of Zaragoza.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific conditions, most of which are likely not to have been met by the ancestors of native South Americans.
Abstract: Numerous studies of human populations in Europe and Asia have revealed a concordance between their extant genetic structure and the prevailing regional pattern of geography and language. For native South Americans, however, such evidence has been lacking so far. Therefore, we examined the relationship between Y-chromosomal genotype on the one hand, and male geographic origin and linguistic affiliation on the other, in the largest study of South American natives to date in terms of sampled individuals and populations. A total of 1,011 individuals, representing 50 tribal populations from 81 settlements, were genotyped for up to 17 short tandem repeat (STR) markers and 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), the latter resolving phylogenetic lineages Q and C. Virtually no structure became apparent for the extant Y-chromosomal genetic variation of South American males that could sensibly be related to their inter-tribal geographic and linguistic relationships. This continent-wide decoupling is consistent with a rapid peopling of the continent followed by long periods of isolation in small groups. Furthermore, for the first time, we identified a distinct geographical cluster of Y-SNP lineages C-M217 (C3*) in South America. Such haplotypes are virtually absent from North and Central America, but occur at high frequency in Asia. Together with the locally confined Y-STR autocorrelation observed in our study as a whole, the available data therefore suggest a late introduction of C3* into South America no more than 6,000 years ago, perhaps via coastal or trans-Pacific routes. Extensive simulations revealed that the observed lack of haplogroup C3* among extant North and Central American natives is only compatible with low levels of migration between the ancestor populations of C3* carriers and non-carriers. In summary, our data highlight the fact that a pronounced correlation between genetic and geographic/cultural structure can only be expected under very specific conditions, most of which are likely not to have been met by the ancestors of native South Americans.

95 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A SNaPshot assay is developed, which allows first for a hierarchical testing of all main haplog groups occurring in South American populations and second for a detailed analysis of haplogroups Q and C thought having ancient Asian descent.
Abstract: Studying the Y chromosomes of indigenous tribes of Ecuador revealed a lack of strategic SNP assays to examine the substructure of South American native populations In most studies dealing with South American samples so far only the most common Y-SNP M3 of haplogroup Q was analyzed, because this is known to define a founder group in South America Studies of SNPs ancestral to Q-M3 (Q1a3a) to confirm the results or the typing of Q subclades have often been neglected For this reason we developed a SNaPshot assay, which allows first for a hierarchical testing of all main haplogroups occurring in South American populations and second for a detailed analysis of haplogroups Q and C thought having ancient Asian descent We selected 16 SNPs from the YCC haplogroup tree and established two multiplexes The first multiplex ("SA Major") includes 12 Y-SNPs defining the most frequent haplogroups occurring in South America (M42, M207, M242, M168, M3, M145, M174, M213, RPS4Y711, M45, P170, and M9) The second multiplex ("SA SpecQ") contains Y-SNPs of haplogroup Q, especially of the subclade Q-M3 (M19, M194, P292, M3, and M199) Within our Ecuadorian sample, haplogroup Q-M3 (xM19, M194, P292, and M199) was predominant, but we also found haplogroup E and R, which can be attributed to recent admixture Moreover, we found four out of 65 samples, which were tested to be haplogroup C3* (C-M217) the modal haplogroup in Mongolians and widespread in indigenous populations of the Russian Far East as well as in Eastern Asia This haplogroup is not known to be the result of recent admixture and has been found only one time before in South America Since haplogroup C occurs in Asia and in North America (C3b or C-P39), we assume that these C-lineages are ancient as well Therefore, we established a third multiplex ("SA SpecC"), which allows the further subtyping of haplogroup C, mainly of subclade C3 defined by the Y-SNP M217 (M407, M48, P531, M217, P62, RPS4Y711, M93, M86, and P39) Altogether, these three multiplexes cover the most frequent haplogroups in South America and allow for a maximal resolution of the Y-chromosomal SNP diversity in Amerindian population samples

47 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study reveals that the Nicaraguan Mestizo population harbors a high proportion of European male and Native American female substrate, and the amount of African ancestry is also interesting, probably because of the contribution of Spanish conquerors with North African genetic traces or that of West African slaves.
Abstract: Before the arrival of the Spaniards in Nicaragua, diverse Native American groups inhabited the territory. In colonial times, Native Nicaraguan populations interacted with Europeans and slaves from Africa. To ascertain the extent of this genetic admixture and provide genetic evidence about the origin of the Nicaraguan ancestors, we analyzed the mitochondrial control region (HVSI and HVSII), 17 Y chromosome STRs, and 15 autosomal STRs in 165 Mestizo individuals from Nicaragua. To carry out interpopulation comparisons, HVSI sequences from 29 American populations were compiled from the literature. The results reveal a close relationship between Oto-manguean, Uto-Aztecan, Mayan groups from Mexico, and a Chibchan group to Nicaraguan lineages. The Native American contribution to present-day Nicaraguan Mestizos accounts for most of the maternal lineages, whereas the majority of Nicaraguan Y chromosome haplogroups can be traced back to a West Eurasian origin. Pairwise Fst distances based on Y-STRs between Nicaragua and European, African and Native American populations show that Nicaragua is much closer to Europeans than the other populations. Additionally, admixture proportions based on autosomal STRs indicate a predominantly Spanish contribution. Our study reveals that the Nicaraguan Mestizo population harbors a high proportion of European male and Native American female substrate. Finally, the amount of African ancestry is also interesting, probably because of the contribution of Spanish conquerors with North African genetic traces or that of West African slaves.

45 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of the present study was to analyze morphological, structural, chemical, and biological aspects of a set of medieval human bones to provide an accurate reflection of the state of preservation of the bony components and to relate it with DNA presence.
Abstract: Ancient molecular typing depends on DNA survival in archaeological bones. Finding valuable tools to predict DNA presence in ancient samples, which can be measured prior to undertaking a genetic study, has become an important issue as a consequence of the peculiarities of archaeological samples. Since the survival of DNA is explained by complex interrelations of multiple variables, the aim of the present study was to analyze morphological, structural, chemical, and biological aspects of a set of medieval human bones, to provide an accurate reflection of the state of preservation of the bony components and to relate it with DNA presence. Archaeological bones that yielded amplifiable DNA presented high collagen content (generally more than 12%), low racemization values of aspartic acid (lesser than 0.08), leucine and glutamic acid, low infrared splitting factor, small size of crystallite, and more compact appearance of bone in the scanning electron micrographs. Whether these patterns are characteristic of ancient bones or specific of each burial site or specimen requires further investigation.

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location.
Abstract: The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and posterior dictatorship (until 1970s) stands as one of the major conflicts in the recent history of Spain. It led to nearly two hundred thousand men and women executed or murdered extra-judicially or after dubious legal procedures. Nowadays, most of them remain unidentified or even buried in irretraceable mass graves across Spain. Here, we present the genetic identification of human remains found in 26 mass graves located in Northern Spain. A total of 252 post-mortem remains were analyzed and compared to 186 relatives, allowing the identification of 87 victims. Overall, a significant success of DNA profiling was reached, since informative profiles (≥ 12 STRs and/or mitochondrial DNA profile) were obtained in 85.71% of the remains. This high performance in DNA profiling from challenging samples demonstrated the efficacy of DNA extraction and amplification methods used herein, given that only around 14.29% of the samples did not provide an informative genetic profile for the analysis performed, probably due to the presence of degraded and/or limited DNA in these remains. However, this study shows a partial identification success rate, which is clearly a consequence of the lack of both appropriate family members for genetic comparisons and accurate information about the victims' location. Hence, further perseverance in the exhumation of other intact graves as well as in the search of more alleged relatives is crucial in order to facilitate and increase the number of genetic identifications.

39 citations


Cited by
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01 Aug 2000
TL;DR: Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization with Bioentrepreneur course, which addresses many issues unique to biomedical products.
Abstract: BIOE 402. Medical Technology Assessment. 2 or 3 hours. Bioentrepreneur course. Assessment of medical technology in the context of commercialization. Objectives, competition, market share, funding, pricing, manufacturing, growth, and intellectual property; many issues unique to biomedical products. Course Information: 2 undergraduate hours. 3 graduate hours. Prerequisite(s): Junior standing or above and consent of the instructor.

4,833 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC emerged about 70,000 years ago, accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded as a consequence of increases in human population density during the Neolithic period, consistent with MTBC displaying characteristics indicative of adaptation to both low and high host densities.
Abstract: Tuberculosis caused 20% of all human deaths in the Western world between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries and remains a cause of high mortality in developing countries. In analogy to other crowd diseases, the origin of human tuberculosis has been associated with the Neolithic Demographic Transition, but recent studies point to a much earlier origin. We analyzed the whole genomes of 259 M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains and used this data set to characterize global diversity and to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this pathogen. Coalescent analyses indicate that MTBC emerged about 70,000 years ago, accompanied migrations of anatomically modern humans out of Africa and expanded as a consequence of increases in human population density during the Neolithic period. This long coevolutionary history is consistent with MTBC displaying characteristics indicative of adaptation to both low and high host densities.

894 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Languages of Native North America: A Dictionary of Native American Languages by Marianne M Mithun as mentioned in this paper, 1999. 773 pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Abstract: The Languages of Native North America. Marianne Mithun. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 773 pp.

288 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Iñigo Olalde1, Swapan Mallick2, Swapan Mallick1, Swapan Mallick3, Nick Patterson2, Nadin Rohland1, Vanessa Villalba-Mouco4, Vanessa Villalba-Mouco5, Marina Silva6, Katharina Dulias6, Ceiridwen J. Edwards6, Francesca Gandini6, Maria Pala6, Pedro Soares7, Manuel Ferrando-Bernal8, Nicole Adamski3, Nicole Adamski1, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht3, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht1, Olivia Cheronet9, Brendan J. Culleton10, Daniel Fernandes9, Daniel Fernandes11, Ann Marie Lawson3, Ann Marie Lawson1, Matthew Mah3, Matthew Mah1, Matthew Mah2, Jonas Oppenheimer1, Jonas Oppenheimer3, Kristin Stewardson3, Kristin Stewardson1, Zhao Zhang1, Juan Manuel Jiménez Arenas12, Juan Manuel Jiménez Arenas13, Isidro Jorge Toro Moyano, Domingo C. Salazar-García14, Pere Castanyer, Marta Santos, Joaquim Tremoleda, Marina Lozano15, Pablo García Borja16, Javier Fernández-Eraso14, José Antonio Mujika-Alustiza14, Cecilio Barroso, Francisco J. Bermúdez, Enrique Viguera Mínguez17, Josep Burch, Neus Coromina, David Vivó, Artur Cebrià18, Josep Maria Fullola18, Oreto García-Puchol19, Juan Ignacio Morales18, F. Xavier Oms18, Tona Majó20, Josep Maria Vergès15, Antonia Díaz-Carvajal18, Imma Ollich-Castanyer18, F. Javier López-Cachero18, Ana Maria Silva11, Ana Maria Silva21, Carmen Alonso-Fernández, Germán Delibes de Castro22, Javier Jiménez Echevarría, Adolfo Moreno-Márquez23, Adolfo Moreno-Márquez24, Guillermo Pascual Berlanga12, Pablo Ramos-García12, José Ramos-Muñoz24, Eduardo Vijande Vila24, Gustau Aguilella Arzo, Ángel Esparza Arroyo25, Katina T. Lillios26, Jennifer E. Mack26, Javier Velasco-Vázquez27, Anna J. Waterman28, Luis Benítez de Lugo Enrich29, Luis Benítez de Lugo Enrich16, María Benito Sánchez30, Bibiana Agustí, Ferran Codina, Gabriel de Prado, Almudena Estalrrich31, Álvaro Fernández Flores, Clive Finlayson, Geraldine Finlayson32, Geraldine Finlayson33, Stewart Finlayson34, Stewart Finlayson32, Francisco Giles-Guzmán32, Antonio Rosas35, Virginia Barciela González22, Gabriel García Atiénzar22, Mauro S. Hernández Pérez22, Armando Llanos, Yolanda Carrión Marco19, Isabel Collado Beneyto, David López-Serrano, Mario Sanz Tormo36, António Carlos Valera, Concepción Blasco29, Corina Liesau29, Patricia Ríos29, Joan Daura18, María Jesús de Pedro Michó, Agustín Diez Castillo19, Raúl Flores Fernández37, Raúl Flores Fernández38, Joan Francès Farré, Rafael Garrido-Pena29, Victor S. Gonçalves21, Elisa Guerra-Doce22, Ana Mercedes Herrero-Corral30, Joaquim Juan-Cabanilles, Daniel López-Reyes, Sarah B. McClure36, Marta Pérez18, Arturo Oliver Foix, Montserrat Sanz Borràs18, Ana Catarina Sousa21, Julio Manuel Vidal Encinas, Douglas J. Kennett10, Douglas J. Kennett36, Martin B. Richards6, Kurt W. Alt38, Kurt W. Alt37, Wolfgang Haak39, Wolfgang Haak5, Ron Pinhasi9, Carles Lalueza-Fox8, David Reich1, David Reich2, David Reich3 
15 Mar 2019-Science
TL;DR: It is revealed that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia, and how the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean is document.
Abstract: J.M.F., F.J.L.-C., J.I.M., F.X.O., J.D., and M.S.B. were supported by HAR2017-86509-P, HAR2017-87695-P, and SGR2017-11 from the Generalitat de Catalunya, AGAUR agency. C.L.-F. was supported by Obra Social La Caixa and by FEDER-MINECO (BFU2015- 64699-P). L.B.d.L.E. was supported by REDISCO-HAR2017-88035-P (Plan Nacional I+D+I, MINECO). C.L., P.R., and C.Bl. were supported by MINECO (HAR2016-77600-P). A.Esp., J.V.-V., G.D., and D.C.S.-G. were supported by MINECO (HAR2009-10105 and HAR2013-43851-P). D.J.K. and B.J.C. were supported by NSF BCS-1460367. K.T.L., A.W., and J.M. were supported by NSF BCS-1153568. J.F.-E. and J.A.M.-A. were supported by IT622-13 Gobierno Vasco, Diputacion Foral de Alava, and Diputacion Foral de Gipuzkoa. We acknowledge support from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (PTDC/EPH-ARQ/4164/2014) and the FEDER-COMPETE 2020 project 016899. P.S. was supported by the FCT Investigator Program (IF/01641/2013), FCT IP, and ERDF (COMPETE2020 – POCI). M.Si. and K.D. were supported by a Leverhulme Trust Doctoral Scholarship awarded to M.B.R. and M.P. D.R. was supported by an Allen Discovery Center grant from the Paul Allen Foundation, NIH grant GM100233, and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. V.V.-M. and W.H. were supported by the Max Planck Society.

287 citations