Bio: Miriam Brennan is an academic researcher from National University of Ireland, Galway. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nurse education & Ambulatory care. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 8 publications receiving 63 citations.
TL;DR: No high-quality evidence is found to support the use of any of the topical preparations in the prevention of stretch marks during pregnancy, and there is a clear need for robust, methodologically rigorous randomised trials involving larger sample sizes to evaluate the effects of topical preparations on the development of stretch Marks in pregnancy.
Abstract: Background Striae gravidarum (stretch marks developing during pregnancy) occur in 50% to 90% of women. They appear as red or purple lines or streaks that fade slowly to leave pale lines or marks on the skin. The abdomen, breasts and thighs are commonly affected. The exact cause of stretch marks is unclear and no preparation has yet been shown to be effective in preventing the development of stretch marks. They are a source of significant anxiety for women, impacting on their quality of life. Objectives To assess the effects of topical preparations on the prevention of stretch marks in pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011) and reference lists of retrieved reports. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing topical preparations (with active ingredients) with other topical preparations (with active ingredients), with a placebo (that is, preparations without active ingredients) or with no treatment for the prevention of stretch marks in pregnant women. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. The primary outcome was the presence of stretch marks and the secondary outcome was the severity of stretch marks. Main results We included six trials involving 800 women. Of the six trials, we judged the risk of bias for three as 'low risk' for random sequence generation, blinding of participants and personnel, blinding of outcome assessment, completeness of outcome data and selective reporting. There was no statistically significant average difference in the development of stretch marks in women who received topical preparations with active ingredients compared to women who received a placebo or no treatment (average risk ratio (RR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.03; five trials, 474 women; random-effects model, Tau² = 0.09, I² = 65%) (Analysis 1.1). Results were consistent with the main effects when we performed a sensitivity analysis excluding studies judged to be at high risk of bias for random sequence generation, allocation concealment or more than 20% missing data for a given outcome (average RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.10; four trials, 424 women; random-effects model, Tau² = 0.05, I² = 57%). The was no statistically significant average mean difference in the severity of stretch marks (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.31; 95% CI -1.06 to 0.44; two trials, 255 women; Tau² = 0.26, I² = 87%). There was no statistically significant difference in the development of stretch marks in women who received topical preparations with active ingredients compared to women who received other topical preparations with active ingredients (average RR 0.51; 95% CI 0.16 to 1.60; two trials, 305 women; Tau² = 0.53, I² = 74%). There was no statistically significant difference in the severity of stretch marks (mean difference (MD) -0.20; 95% CI -0.53 to 0.13; one trial, 206 women; heterogeneity not applicable). Authors' conclusions We found no high-quality evidence to support the use of any of the topical preparations in the prevention of stretch marks during pregnancy. There is a clear need for robust, methodologically rigorous randomised trials involving larger sample sizes to evaluate the effects of topical preparations on the development of stretch marks in pregnancy. In addition, it is important that preparations commonly used by women to prevent and treat stretch marks are evaluated within the context of robust, methodologically rigorous and adequately powered randomised trials.
TL;DR: Bio-oil was the most commonly used product identified in this study and there is a need for high-quality evidence on the effectiveness of Bio-oil and other products.
Abstract: Stretch marks (Striae gravidarum) are a cutaneous change occurring commonly during pregnancy. A variety of products are available and promoted as ways to prevent or reduce their development, but it is not clear what products are used most commonly. The objective of this study was to identify topical products used during pregnancy to prevent or reduce the development of striae gravidarum. We also explored issues around application of the product, cost incurred and influences on women’s decisions to use a product. In this cross sectional, descriptive survey we collected data from 773 women, via a paper (n = 707) or online (n = 66) questionnaire. Due to missing data in the online survey, 753 women at 36 weeks gestation or more were included in the analyses. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were undertaken. Most respondents (n = 589, 78.2 %) indicated that they used a product to prevent or reduce the development of stretch marks during their current pregnancy. A large range of products were used and more than one third of women (n = 210, 36.5 %) had used two or more products. Bio-oil was the most frequently used product (n = 351, 60.9 %) and it was also the most frequently used product among women who used only one product (n = 189, 32.8 %). Many women apply one of the many products available to prevent or reduce the development of striae gravidarum. Bio-oil was the most commonly used product identified in this study. There is a need for high-quality evidence on the effectiveness of Bio-oil and other products.
TL;DR: Oral history interviews were undertaken with twelve former student nurses (1960-2001) to explore their experiences of clinical learning and task allocation, finding that students' experiences were influenced more by issues surrounding the task, particularly the 'task-person', than the task itself.
Abstract: The apprenticeship model of nurse training was in place in Ireland up to the end of the twentieth century. Task orientated care was a feature of this model. It is important to examine task allocation from the student's perspective, in light of current and on-going debates regarding student nurses' supernumerary status. Both approaches influence the status of the student; as a worker with task allocation and as a learner with supernumerary status. Oral history interviews were undertaken with twelve former student nurses (1960-2001) to explore their experiences of clinical learning and task allocation. Task allocation consisted of household tasks and tasks involving patient care. Students' experiences were influenced more by issues surrounding the task, particularly the 'task-person', than the task itself. Therefore, a learning environment that is inclusive, supportive and understanding of students' learning is recommended, regardless of the model of nurse training or education that might be in place. These findings can inform current debate on supernumerary status and task allocation for the student nurse within their clinical learning environment, but also on the history of nurse education in Ireland in the twentieth century.
TL;DR: A pilot trial will evaluate the feasibility of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available moisturising oil compared to no treatment for the prevention and reduction in severity of striae gravidarum.
Abstract: Striae gravidarum (stretch marks) are considered the most common connective tissue/skin change in pregnancy. Though not a health issue they can affect women in different ways, for example, cause stress or be an aesthetic or cosmetic concern. Many women use one or more of the commercially available products to try and prevent their development during pregnancy despite the fact that that there is a lack of high-quality evidence to support their use. There is a dearth of studies on the prevention of striae gravidarum and large, robust trials are lacking. Until such time as more products are investigated, much of the knowledge remains anecdotal. This pilot study will evaluate the feasibility of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available moisturising oil compared to no treatment for the prevention and reduction in severity of striae gravidarum. The definitive study will be a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a moisturising oil (commercially available moisturising oil) compared to no treatment for the prevention and reduction in severity of striae gravidarum. This protocol is for a pilot randomised trial to evaluate the feasibility of conducting such a study. The pilot study will be a two-arm, unblinded, pragmatic parallel randomised trial with a 1:1 randomisation ratio between control and intervention groups. Women in the intervention group will be asked to apply a moisturising oil to their abdomen during pregnancy, while women in the control group will not use any treatment. It is proposed to recruit 20 primigravida, who are 12–16 weeks pregnant from an Irish Maternity Hospital, in each arm to assess the feasibility of running such a trial. This pilot trial will evaluate the feasibility of conducting the main study to evaluate the effectiveness of a moisturising oil (commercially available moisturising oil) compared to no treatment for the prevention and reduction in severity of striae gravidarum. It will potentially initiate the generation of high-quality evidence to guide women in their choice of anti-stretch mark product. ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN76992326 . Registered on 14 July 2017.
TL;DR: Treatments that are evaluated include topical agents, used prophylactically or therapeutically, as well as light and laser therapies, which have shown improvements in the appearance of striae.
Abstract: Striae distensae are an extremely common, therapeutically challenging form of dermal scarring. Risk factors have been reported but much remains to be understood about their epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment. Up-to-date knowledge of the scientific research and the evidence behind both preventative and therapeutic agents are vital in order to understand striae and to offer patients the best therapeutic alternatives. We present a clinical review of the current literature concerning striae distensae and their prevention and treatment. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using Medline, Embase and Google Scholar. Articles in English, Spanish, Portuguese, Turkish and French were included. Striae distensae occur in pregnancy, puberty and obesity as well as in numerous medical conditions and following therapeutic interventions. Proposed aetiological mechanisms relate to hormones, physical stretch and structural alterations to the integument. Assessment methods include subjective visual scoring and various imaging modalities. Treatments that we have evaluated include topical agents, used prophylactically or therapeutically, as well as light and laser therapies, which have shown improvements in the appearance of striae. Few high level evidence based medicine randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for striae distensae exist. Topical therapeutic agents appear to lack efficacy in the prevention of striae distensae. What's already known about this topic? Striae distensae are extremely common and pose a significant psychological burden for patients. They commonly occur during pregnancy and adolescence. Topical, laser and light therapies can be used as treatment. What does this study add? We provide an up-to-date review of the literature regarding striae distensae, their epidemiology, histopathology and assessment. We also provide an evidence-based evaluation of topical, laser and light therapies used to treat striae distensae.
TL;DR: There is no topical formulation, which is shown to be most effective in eradicating or improving SD, and a structured approach in identification and targeted management of symptoms and signs with the appropriate topical is required.
Abstract: Striae distensae (SD) are common dermal lesions, with significant physical and psychological impact. Many therapeutic modalities are available but none can completely eradicate SD. The most common therapy is the application of topicals used both therapeutically and prophylactically. Even though there are many commercially available topical products, not all have sufficient level of evidence to support their continued use in SD. The aim here was to assess the evidence for the use of topicals in SD and to propose a structured approach in managing SD. A systematic search of published literature and manufacturer website information for topicals in SD was carried out. The results showed that there are few studies (n = 11) which investigate the efficacy of topicals in management of SD. Trofolastin and Alphastria creams demonstrated level-2 evidence of positive results for their prophylactic use in SD. Additionally, tretinoin used therapeutically showed varying results whilst cocoa butter and olive oil did not demonstrate any effect. Overall, there is a distinct lack of evidence for each topical formulation. The majority of topicals failed to mention their effect on early vs. later stages of SD (striae rubrae compared to striae albae) and their role in both prevention and treatment. In conclusion, there is no topical formulation, which is shown to be most effective in eradicating or improving SD. A structured approach in identification and targeted management of symptoms and signs with the appropriate topical is required. Randomized controlled trials are necessary to assess the efficacy of topical products for treatment and prevention of different stages of SD.
TL;DR: An overview of the literature regarding treatments for keloid disease, hypertrophic scars, and striae distensae in dark pigmented skin is presented in this paper, where the authors provide guidance on the assessment and determination of patients' suitability for certain treatment options, as well as advice on the follow-up of patients affected with problematic scarring.
Abstract: This article presents an overview of the literature regarding treatments for keloid disease, hypertrophic scars, and striae distensae in dark pigmented skin. Striae, keloid, and hypertrophic scarring present a challenging problem for both the clinician and patient. No single therapy is advocated for hypertrophic scars, keloid scars, or striae distensae. New therapies have shown promise in the treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars, and in patients with dark pigmented skin. This article provides guidance on the assessment and determination of patients' suitability for certain treatment options, as well as advice on the follow-up of patients affected with problematic scarring and striae.
TL;DR: It is concluded that reliable methods for preventing striae gravidarum are scarce and available topical modalities generally lack strong evidence from rigorous, well‐designed, randomized controlled trials with ample numbers of subjects, and further research is necessary to elucidate SG pathogenesis.
Abstract: Striae gravidarum (SG), or stretch marks developing during pregnancy, affect up to 90% of women. While not medically dangerous, SG can be disfiguring, causing emotional and psychological distress. However, studies specifically addressing the prevention of SG, especially during pregnancy, are sparse. Furthermore, the molecular pathogenesis of SG is unclear and may differ from that of striae from other causes. Considering these factors, we review topical modalities that have been used specifically for preventing SG during pregnancy. We identify two major strategies (end points) addressed by these modalities, namely (i) preventing the de novo development of SG and (ii) reducing the severity of SG that have recently developed. We also identify risk factors for the development of SG and suggest that pregnant women with these risk factors are an appropriate target population for prevention. In reviewing the literature, we find that there is limited evidence that centella, and possibly massage with bitter almond oil, may prevent SG and/or reduce their severity. There is weak evidence that hyaluronic acid prevents SG. Tretinoin holds promise for reducing the severity of new-onset SG, but its use is limited by its pregnancy category. Finally, cocoa butter and olive oil are not effective for preventing SG or reducing the severity of lesions. We conclude that reliable methods for preventing SG are scarce. Furthermore, available topical modalities generally lack strong evidence from rigorous, well-designed, randomized controlled trials with ample numbers of subjects. Thus, further research is necessary to elucidate SG pathogenesis, which may lead to effective prevention modalities.
TL;DR: Evaluated and summarize the different treatment methods for striae distensae by linking their proposed modes of action with the histopathogenesis of the condition to guide patient treatment.
Abstract: Background Striae distensae are permanent dermal lesions that can cause significant psychosocial distress. A detailed understanding of the numerous treatment modalities available is essential to ensuring optimal patient outcomes. Objective Our objective was to evaluate and summarize the different treatment methods for striae distensae by linking their proposed modes of action with the histopathogenesis of the condition to guide patient treatment. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed with no limits placed on publication date. Relevant studies were assigned a level of evidence by the authors. Results Ninety-two articles were identified, with 74 being eligible for quality assessment. The majority of treatments aim to increase collagen production. The use of vascular lasers can reduce erythema in striae rubrae by targeting hemoglobin, whereas increasing melanin through methods such as ultraviolet light is a major focus for treatment of striae albae. Despite some topical treatments being widely used, uncertainty regarding their mode of action remains. No treatment has proved to be completely effective. Limitations Limitations of the study include low-quality evidence, small sample sizes, and varying treatment protocols and outcome measures, along with concerns regarding publication bias. Conclusions Further randomized, controlled trials are needed before definitive conclusions and recommendations can be made.