Bio: Moeto Nagai is an academic researcher from Toyohashi University of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Vorticella & Vorticella convallaria. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 104 publications receiving 564 citations. Previous affiliations of Moeto Nagai include University of Tokyo & Nagoya University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this review, this review of the recent advances in single-cell technologies and their applications insingle-cell manipulation, diagnosis, and therapeutics development are described.
Abstract: The investigation of human disease mechanisms is difficult due to the heterogeneity in gene expression and the physiological state of cells in a given population. In comparison to bulk cell measurements, single-cell measurement technologies can provide a better understanding of the interactions among molecules, organelles, cells, and the microenvironment, which can aid in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. In recent years, single-cell technologies have become increasingly robust and accessible, although limitations exist. In this review, we describe the recent advances in single-cell technologies and their applications in single-cell manipulation, diagnosis, and therapeutics development.
TL;DR: A microfluidic platform to control the stalk contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria by changing concentration of Ca2+ with pneumatically-actuated elastomeric microvalves is demonstrated.
Abstract: In this report, we demonstrate a microfluidic platform to control the stalk contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria by changing concentration of Ca2+ with pneumatically-actuated elastomeric microvalves. Habitation, extraction and control of V. convallaria were carried out in a PDMS-based microfluidic device. By treating the cells with the permeant saponin, external actuation of cell-anchoring stalk between an extended and contracted state was achieved by cyclic exposure of the cells to a Ca2+ buffer (10−6 M) and a rinse buffer containing EGTA as a chelation agent. When solutions were switched, the stalk contracted and extended responding to the ambient Ca2+ concentration change. The length of the stalk changed between 20 and 60 μm, resulting in a working distance of about 40 μm.
TL;DR: This review article will emphasize the basic concept and working mechanism associated with electroporation, single cell Electroporation and biomolecular delivery using micro/nanofluidic devices, their fabrication, working principles and cellular analysis with their advantages, limitations, potential applications and future prospects.
Abstract: © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd. The ability to deliver foreign molecules into a single living cell with high transfection efficiency and high cell viability is of great interest in cell biology for applications in therapeutic development, diagnostics and drug delivery towards personalized medicine. Many chemical and physical methods have been developed for cellular delivery, however most of these techniques are bulk approach, which are cell-specific and have low throughput delivery. On the other hand, electroporation is an efficient and fast method to deliver exogenous biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and oligonucleotides into target living cells with the advantages of easy operation, controllable electrical parameters and avoidance of toxicity. The rapid development of micro/nanofluidic technologies in the last two decades, enables us to focus an intense electric field on the targeted cell membrane to perform single cell micro-nano-electroporation with high throughput intracellular delivery, high transfection efficiency and cell viability. This review article will emphasize the basic concept and working mechanism associated with electroporation, single cell electroporation and biomolecular delivery using micro/nanoscale electroporation devices, their fabrication, working principles and cellular analysis with their advantages, limitations, potential applications and future prospects.
TL;DR: Using experiments and calculations, it is shown that living suspension feeders (Vorticella) likely actively regulate the angle that they feed relative to a substratum, and angled feeding increases nutrient and particle uptake by reducing the reprocessing of depleted water.
Abstract: Microscopic sessile suspension feeders are a critical component in aquatic ecosystems, acting as an intermediate trophic stage between bacteria and higher eukaryotic taxa. Because they live attached to boundaries, it has long been thought that recirculation of the feeding currents produced by sessile suspension feeders inhibits their ability to access fresh fluid. However, previous models for the feeding flows of these organisms assume that they feed by pushing fluid perpendicular to surfaces they live upon, whereas we observe that sessile suspension feeders often feed at an angle to these boundaries. Using experiments and calculations, we show that living suspension feeders (Vorticella) likely actively regulate the angle that they feed relative to a substratum. We then use theory and simulations to show that angled feeding increases nutrient and particle uptake by reducing the reprocessing of depleted water. This work resolves an open question of how a key class of suspension-feeding organisms escapes physical limitations associated with their sessile lifestyle.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for micro-scale engineering systems, which has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk.
Abstract: In this review, we introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for microscale engineering systems. Vorticella has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk. The oral cilia beat periodically, generating a water flow that translates food particles toward the animal at speeds in the order of 0.1–1 mm/s. The ciliary flow of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement and theoretical modeling, and tested for flow control and mixing in microfluidic systems. The spasmoneme contracts in a few milliseconds, coiling the stalk and moving the zooid at 15–90 mm/s. Because the spasmoneme generates tension in the order of 10–100 nN, powered by calcium ion binding, it serves as a model system for biomimetic actuators in microscale engineering systems. The spasmonemal contraction of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement of its dynamics and energetics, and both live and extracted Vorticellae have been tested for moving microscale objects. We describe past work to elucidate the contraction mechanism of the spasmoneme, recognizing that past and continuing efforts will increase the possibilities of using the spasmoneme as a microscale actuator as well as leading towards bioinspired actuators mimicking the spasmoneme.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: A wide range of new lead finding and lead optimization opportunities result from novel screening methods by NMR, which are the topic of this review article.
Abstract: In recent years, tools for the development of new drugs have been dramatically improved. These include genomic and proteomic research, numerous biophysical methods, combinatorial chemistry and screening technologies. In addition, early ADMET studies are employed in order to significantly reduce the failure rate in the development of drug candidates. As a consequence, the lead finding, lead optimization and development process has gained marked enhancement in speed and efficiency. In parallel to this development, major pharma companies are increasingly outsourcing many components of drug discovery research to biotech companies. All these measures are designed to address the need for a faster time to market. New screening methodologies have contributed significantly to the efficiency of the drug discovery process. The conventional screening of single compounds or compound libraries has been dramatically accelerated by high throughput screening methods. In addition, in silico screening methods allow the evaluation of virtual compounds. A wide range of new lead finding and lead optimization opportunities result from novel screening methods by NMR, which are the topic of this review article.
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors described the single cell analysis as the new frontier in Omics, and single cell Omics has the potential to transform systems biology through new discoveries derived from cellular heterogeneity.
Abstract: Single cell analysis: the new frontier in ‘Omics’ Daojing Wang 1 and Steven Bodovitz 2 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2. BioPerspectives, San Francisco, CA Corresponding author: Wang, D. (email@example.com) Cellular heterogeneity arising from stochastic expression of genes, proteins, and metabolites is a fundamental principle of cell biology, but single cell analysis has been beyond the capabilities of ‘Omics’ technologies. This is rapidly changing with the recent examples of single cell genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The rate of change is expected to accelerate owing to emerging technologies that range from micro/nanofluidics to microfabricated interfaces for mass spectrometry to third- and fourth-generation automated DNA sequencers. As described in this review, single cell analysis is the new frontier in Omics, and single cell Omics has the potential to transform systems biology through new discoveries derived from cellular heterogeneity. Single cell analysis: needs and applications Cellular heterogeneity Cellular heterogeneity within an isogenic cell population is a widespread event [1, 2]. Stochastic gene and protein expression at the single cell level has been clearly demonstrated in different systems using a variety of techniques [3-5]. Therefore, analyzing cell ensembles individually with high spatiotemporal resolutions will lead to a
TL;DR: Recent and future developments for MN technology including the latest type of MN design, challenges and strategies in MNs development as well as potential safety aspects based on comprehensive literature review pertaining to MN studies to date are focused on.
Abstract: The formidable barrier properties of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, impose significant limitations for successful systemic delivery of broad range of therapeutic molecules particularly macromolecules and genetic material. Microneedle (MN) has been proposed as a strategy to breach the stratum corneum barrier function in order to facilitate effective transport of molecules across the skin. This strategy involves use of micron sized needles fabricated of different materials and geometries to create transient aqueous conduits across the skin. MN, alone or with other enhancing strategies, has been demonstrated to dramatically enhance the skin permeability of numerous therapeutic molecules including biopharmaceuticals either in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo experiments. This suggested the promising use of MN technology for various possible clinical applications such as insulin delivery, transcutaneous immunisations and cutaneous gene delivery. MN has been proved as minimally invasive and painless in human subjects. This review article focuses on recent and future developments for MN technology including the latest type of MN design, challenges and strategies in MNs development as well as potential safety aspects based on comprehensive literature review pertaining to MN studies to date.
Virginia Tech1, University of Birmingham2, Clarkson University3, University of Cambridge4, Spanish National Research Council5, Eindhoven University of Technology6, University of Oldenburg7, University of Oxford8, Centre national de la recherche scientifique9, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine10, University of Warwick11, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv12, Monash University, Clayton campus13, University of California, Santa Barbara14, University of Aberdeen15, University of the Balearic Islands16, University of Leeds17, University of Wisconsin-Madison18
TL;DR: In this article, the present position of and survey future perspectives in the physics of chaotic advection: the field that emerged three decades ago at the intersection of fluid mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, which encompasses a range of applications with length scales ranging from micrometers to hundreds of kilometers.
Abstract: This work reviews the present position of and surveys future perspectives in the physics of chaotic advection: the field that emerged three decades ago at the intersection of fluid mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, which encompasses a range of applications with length scales ranging from micrometers to hundreds of kilometers, including systems as diverse as mixing and thermal processing of viscous fluids, microfluidics, biological flows, and oceanographic and atmospheric flows.