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Author

Mohammed Abo-Zahhad

Bio: Mohammed Abo-Zahhad is an academic researcher from Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Wireless sensor network & Wavelet. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 125 publication(s) receiving 1917 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Mohammed Abo-Zahhad include Assiut University & Jordan University of Science and Technology.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mobile sink-based adaptive immune energy-efficient clustering protocol (MSIEEP) that improves the lifetime, the stability, and the instability periods over the previous protocols, because it always selects CHs from high-energy nodes.
Abstract: Energy hole problem is a critical issue for data gathering in wireless sensor networks. Sensors near the static sink act as relays for far sensors and thus will deplete their energy very quickly, resulting energy holes in the sensor field. Exploiting the mobility of a sink has been widely accepted as an efficient way to alleviate this problem. However, determining an optimal moving trajectory for a mobile sink is a non-deterministic polynomial-time hard problem. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile sink-based adaptive immune energy-efficient clustering protocol (MSIEEP) to alleviate the energy holes. A MSIEEP uses the adaptive immune algorithm (AIA) to guide the mobile sink-based on minimizing the total dissipated energy in communication and overhead control packets. Moreover, AIA is used to find the optimum number of cluster heads (CHs) to improve the lifetime and stability period of the network. The performance of MSIEEP is compared with the previously published protocols; namely, low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), genetic algorithm-based LEACH, amend LEACH, rendezvous, and mobile sink improved energy-efficient PEGASIS-based routing protocol using MATLAB. Simulation results show that MSIEEP is more reliable and energy efficient as compared with other protocols. Furthermore, it improves the lifetime, the stability, and the instability periods over the previous protocols, because it always selects CHs from high-energy nodes. Moreover, the mobile sink increases the ability of the proposed protocol to deliver packets to the destination.

139 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs and presents a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications.
Abstract: Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs). Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

93 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) compression based on the compression of the linearly predicted residuals of the wavelet coefficients of the signal, which reduces the bit rate while keeping the reconstructed signal distortion at a clinically acceptable level.
Abstract: This paper describes a new algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) compression. The main goal of the algorithm is to reduce the bit rate while keeping the reconstructed signal distortion at a clinically acceptable level. It is based on the compression of the linearly predicted residuals of the wavelet coefficients of the signal. In this algorithm, the input signal is divided into blocks and each block goes through a discrete wavelet transform; then the resulting wavelet coefficients are linearly predicted. In this way, a set of uncorrelated transform domain signals is obtained. These signals are compressed using various coding methods, including modified run-length and Huffman coding techniques. The error corresponding to the difference between the wavelet coefficients and the predicted coefficients is minimized in order to get the best predictor. The method is assessed through the use of percent root-mean square difference (PRD) and visual inspection measures. By this compression method, small PRD and high compression ratio with low implementation complexity are achieved. Finally, we have compared the performance of the ECG compression algorithm on data from the MIT-BIH database.

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Centralized Immune-Voronoi deployment Algorithm (CIVA) to maximize the coverage based on both binary and probabilistic models to improve the lifetime and the coverage of MWSN is proposed.
Abstract: A Centralized Immune-Voronoi deployment Algorithm (CIVA) is proposed.CIVA considers the binary and the probabilistic model for enhancing the coverage.CIVA adjusts the positions, the sensing ranges and the radios of MSNs in MWSN.CIVA provides a better trade-off between the coverage and the energy consumption.Simulation experiments were conducted in MATLAB correctly. Saving energy is a most important challenge in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) to extend the lifetime, and optimal coverage is the key to it. Therefore, this paper proposes a Centralized Immune-Voronoi deployment Algorithm (CIVA) to maximize the coverage based on both binary and probabilistic models. CIVA utilizes the multi-objective immune algorithm that uses the Voronoi diagram properties to provide a better trade-off between the coverage and the energy consumption. The CIVA algorithm consists from two phases to improve the lifetime and the coverage of MWSN. In the first phase, CIVA controls the positions and the sensing ranges of Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs) based on maximizing the coverage and minimizing the dissipated energy in mobility and sensing. While the second phase of CIVA adjusts the radio (sleep/active) of MSNs to minimize the number of active sensors based on minimizing the consumption energy in sensing and redundant coverage and preserving the coverage at high level. The performance of the CIVA is compared with the previous algorithms using Matlab simulation for different network configurations with and without obstacles. Simulation results show that the CIVA algorithm outperforms the previous algorithms in terms of the coverage and the dissipated energy for different networks configurations.

69 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study adopts a system which includes continuous collection and evaluation of multiple vital signs, long-term healthcare, and a cellular connection to a medical center in emergency case and it transfers all acquired raw data by the internet in normal case.
Abstract: Recently, remote healthcare systems have received increasing attention in the last decade, explaining why intelligent systems with physiology signal monitoring for e-health care are an emerging area of development. Therefore, this study adopts a system which includes continuous collection and evaluation of multiple vital signs, long-term healthcare, and a cellular connection to a medical center in emergency case and it transfers all acquired raw data by the internet in normal case. The proposed system can continuously acquire four different physiological signs, for example, ECG, SpO2, temperature, and blood pressure and further relayed them to an intelligent data analysis scheme to diagnose abnormal pulses for exploring potential chronic diseases. The proposed system also has a friendly web-based interface for medical staff to observe immediate pulse signals for remote treatment. Once abnormal event happened or the request to real-time display vital signs is confirmed, all physiological signs will be immediately transmitted to remote medical server through both cellular networks and internet. Also data can be transmitted to a family member's mobile phone or doctor's phone through GPRS. A prototype of such system has been successfully developed and implemented, which will offer high standard of healthcare with a major reduction in cost for our society.

68 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this review, the emerging role of the wavelet transform in the interrogation of the ECG is discussed in detail, where both the continuous and the discrete transform are considered in turn.
Abstract: The wavelet transform has emerged over recent years as a powerful time-frequency analysis and signal coding tool favoured for the interrogation of complex nonstationary signals. Its application to biosignal processing has been at the forefront of these developments where it has been found particularly useful in the study of these, often problematic, signals: none more so than the ECG. In this review, the emerging role of the wavelet transform in the interrogation of the ECG is discussed in detail, where both the continuous and the discrete transform are considered in turn.

713 citations

Book ChapterDOI
27 Jan 2005
TL;DR: This chapter will focus on evaluating the pairwise error probability with and without CSI, and how the results of these evaluations can be used via the transfer bound approach to evaluate average BEP of coded modulation transmitted over the fading channel.
Abstract: In studying the performance of coded communications over memoryless channels (with or without fading), the results are given as upper bounds on the average bit error probability (BEP). In principle, there are three different approaches to arriving at these bounds, all of which employ obtaining the so-called pairwise error probability , or the probability of choosing one symbol sequence over another for a given pair of possible transmitted symbol sequences, followed by a weighted summation over all pairwise events. In this chapter, we will focus on the results obtained from the third approach since these provide the tightest upper bounds on the true performance. The first emphasis will be placed on evaluating the pairwise error probability with and without CSI, following which we shall discuss how the results of these evaluations can be used via the transfer bound approach to evaluate average BEP of coded modulation transmitted over the fading channel.

647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice and to recommend recommendations for ECG standards.
Abstract: This statement provides a concise list of diagnostic terms for ECG interpretation that can be shared by students, teachers, and readers of electrocardiography. This effort was motivated by the existence of multiple automated diagnostic code sets containing imprecise and overlapping terms. An intended outcome of this statement list is greater uniformity of ECG diagnosis and a resultant improvement in patient care. The lexicon includes primary diagnostic statements, secondary diagnostic statements, modifiers, and statements for the comparison of ECGs. This diagnostic lexicon should be reviewed and updated periodically.

554 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice and to recommend recommendations for ECG standards.
Abstract: This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology. Its purpose is to foster understanding of how the modern ECG is derived and displayed and to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice. Derivation of representative waveforms and measurements based on global intervals are described. Special emphasis is placed on digital signal acquisition and computer-based signal processing, which provide automated measurements that lead to computer-generated diagnostic statements. Lead placement, recording methods, and waveform presentation are reviewed. Throughout the statement, recommendations for ECG standards are placed in context of the clinical implications of evolving ECG technology.

486 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice and recommend recommendations for ECG standards.
Abstract: This statement examines the relation of the resting ECG to its technology. Its purpose is to foster understanding of how the modern ECG is derived and displayed and to establish standards that will improve the accuracy and usefulness of the ECG in practice. Derivation of representative waveforms and measurements based on global intervals are described. Special emphasis is placed on digital signal acquisition and computer-based signal processing, which provide automated measurements that lead to computer-generated diagnostic statements. Lead placement, recording methods, and waveform presentation are reviewed. Throughout the statement, recommendations for ECG standards are placed in context of the clinical implications of evolving ECG technology.

277 citations