Bio: Mohd-Hashim Abu is an academic researcher from National University of Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Wildlife conservation & Ecotourism. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 2 publication(s) receiving 24 citation(s).
TL;DR: Analysis of phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques confirms the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f.
Abstract: Phylogenetic relationships among Malaysia’s long-tailed macaques have yet to be established, despite abundant genetic studies of the species worldwide. The aims of this study are to examine the phylogenetic relationships of Macaca fascicularis in Malaysia and to test its classification as a morphological subspecies. A total of 25 genetic samples of M. fascicularis yielding 383 bp of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis along with one sample each of M. nemestrina and M. arctoides used as outgroups. Sequence character analysis reveals that Cyt b locus is a highly conserved region with only 23% parsimony informative character detected among ingroups. Further analysis indicates a clear separation between populations originating from different regions; the Malay Peninsula versus Borneo Insular, the East Coast versus West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, and the island versus mainland Malay Peninsula populations. Phylogenetic trees (NJ, MP and Bayesian) portray a consistent clustering paradigm as Borneo’s population was distinguished from Peninsula’s population (99% and 100% bootstrap value in NJ and MP respectively and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian trees). The East coast population was separated from other Peninsula populations (64% in NJ, 66% in MP and 0.53 posterior probability in Bayesian). West coast populations were divided into 2 clades: the North-South (47%/54% in NJ, 26/26% in MP and 1.00/0.80 posterior probability in Bayesian) and Island-Mainland (93% in NJ, 90% in MP and 1.00 posterior probability in Bayesian). The results confirm the previous morphological assignment of 2 subspecies, M. f. fascicularis and M. f. argentimembris, in the Malay Peninsula. These populations should be treated as separate genetic entities in order to conserve the genetic diversity of Malaysia’s M. fascicularis. These findings are crucial in aiding the conservation management and translocation process of M. fascicularis populations in Malaysia.
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: Comparison of morphological characteristics and genetics between Mfa and Mff should help elucidate not only the morphological differences and genetic divergence between these subspecies but also potentially the relationship between genetics and their tool use behavior.
Abstract: Macaca fascicularis aurea (Mfa) is the only macaque which has been recorded to use stone tools to access encased foods. They live in close contact with M. fascicularis fascicularis (Mff) in southwestern Thailand and the hybrids were reported [Fooden, 1995]. Although Mff and Mfa can be seen in the same habitat types, tool-use behavior has never been reported in Mff. Thus, comparing the morphological characteristics and genetics between Mfa and Mff should help elucidate not only the morphological differences and genetic divergence between these subspecies but also potentially the relationship between genetics and their tool use behavior. We surveyed Mfa and Mff in Myanmar and Thailand, ranging from 16° 58' to 7° 12' N. Fecal or blood samples were collected from eight, five, and four populations of Mfa, Mff, and Mff × Mfa morphological hybrids along with three individuals of captive Chinese M. mulatta (Mm), respectively, for mtDNA and Y-chromosome (TSPY and SRY genes) DNA sequence analyses. In addition, eight populations were captured and measured for 38 somatometric dimensions. Comparison of the somatic measurements revealed that Mfa had a statistically significantly shorter tail than Mff (P < 0.05). Based on the mtDNA sequences, Mfa was separated from the Mm/Mff clade. Within the Mfa clade, the mainland Myanmar population was separate from the Mergui Archipelago and Thailand Andaman seacoast populations. All the morphological hybrids had the Mff mtDNA haplotype. Based on the Y-chromosome sequences, the three major clades of Mm/Indochinese Mff, Sundaic Mff, and Mfa were constructed. The hybrid populations grouped either with the Mm/Indochinese Mff or with the Mfa. Regarding the genetic analysis, one subspecies hybrid population in Thailand (KRI) elicited tool use behavior, thus the potential role of genetics in tool use behavior is raised in addition to the environmental force, morphological suitability, and cognitive capability. Am. J. Primatol. 78:441-455, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
21 Mar 2015-BMC Genomics
TL;DR: The application of complete mtDNA genomes yields new insights into the evolutionary history of M. f.
Abstract: Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are an important model species in biomedical research and reliable knowledge about their evolutionary history is essential for biomedical inferences. Ten subspecies have been recognized, of which most are restricted to small islands of Southeast Asia. In contrast, the common long-tailed macaque (M. f. fascicularis) is distributed over large parts of the Southeast Asian mainland and the Sundaland region. To shed more light on the phylogeny of M. f. fascicularis, we sequenced complete mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes of 40 individuals from all over the taxon’s range, either by classical PCR-amplification and Sanger sequencing or by DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing. Both laboratory approaches yielded complete mtDNA genomes from M. f. fascicularis with high accuracy and/or coverage. According to our phylogenetic reconstructions, M. f. fascicularis initially diverged into two clades 1.70 million years ago (Ma), with one including haplotypes from mainland Southeast Asia, the Malay Peninsula and North Sumatra (Clade A) and the other, haplotypes from the islands of Bangka, Java, Borneo, Timor, and the Philippines (Clade B). The three geographical populations of Clade A appear as paraphyletic groups, while local populations of Clade B form monophyletic clades with the exception of a Philippine individual which is nested within the Borneo clade. Further, in Clade B the branching pattern among main clades/lineages remains largely unresolved, most likely due to their relatively rapid diversification 0.93-0.84 Ma. Both laboratory methods have proven to be powerful to generate complete mtDNA genome data with similarly high accuracy, with the DNA-capture and high-throughput sequencing approach as the most promising and only practical option to obtain such data from highly degraded DNA, in time and with relatively low costs. The application of complete mtDNA genomes yields new insights into the evolutionary history of M. f. fascicularis by providing a more robust phylogeny and more reliable divergence age estimations than earlier studies.
23 Apr 2015-Food Additives and Contaminants Part A-chemistry Analysis Control Exposure & Risk Assessment
TL;DR: A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the shortest amplicon length for the confirmed detection of monkey meat under compromised states which are known to degrade DNA is reported.
Abstract: Being the third-largest primate population has not made macaque (Macaca fascicularis sp.) monkeys less exposed to threats and dangers. Despite wildlife protection, they have been widely hunted and consumed in several countries because of their purported nutritional values. In addition to trading as pure bush meats in several places, monkey meat has been sold in meatball and soup products in Indonesia. Thus the possibility of macaque meat trafficking under the label of common meats is quite high. This paper reports the development of a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay with the shortest amplicon length for the confirmed detection of monkey meat under compromised states which are known to degrade DNA. We amplified a 120-bp region of d-loop gene using a pair of macaque-specific primers and confirmed their specificity for the target species through cross-challenging against 17 different species using a 141-bp site of an 18 S rRNA gene as an endogenous control ...
TL;DR: The limited evidence suggests that geophagy is adaptive, and provides protection and mineral supplementation, and that it is protective, provides mineral supplements, and is nonadaptive.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES Geophagy, the intentional consumption of earth, is widely practiced among humans and other mammals, but its causes are not well understood. Given the growing number of reports of geophagy among nonhuman primates (NHP), we sought to (1) advance and codify our understanding of the patterns and functional and evolutionary significance of geophagy among NHP and (2) provide a research agenda for a more unified approach to its study. METHODS We systematically reviewed all available literature on NHP geophagy, extracted available data on taxa, geography, climate, diet, sex, age-class, reproductive status, and the characteristics of the earth. We used these data to evaluate three major hypotheses about geophagy, that it is protective, provides mineral supplementation, and is nonadaptive. RESULTS We identified 287 accounts of geophagy among 136 species, adding 79 new primate species to the list of those considered in prior reviews. Nineteen percent of species were in the suborder Strepsirrhini, while 81% were in the suborder Haplorrhini. There were reports of geophagy from 9 of the 17 families and 39 of the 76 genera currently recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. DISCUSSION The limited evidence suggests that geophagy is adaptive, and provides protection and mineral supplementation. We specify the behavioral, dietary, and soil data required to more rigorously investigate these hypotheses across representative species of all taxonomic groups, geographical regions, and dietary classification. Given the plausibility of geophagy for maintaining the health of both wild and captive populations, we urge further study and conservation of geophagy sites.
TL;DR: Nine new species-locus-specific primers for three different loci of mitochondrial DNA, namely D-loop, cy tochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and cytochrome b, were successfully designed and proved to be efficient in amplifying larger datasets of the targeted species in the optimized PCR conditions.
Abstract: The lack of a standardized, noninvasive molecular approach to studying genetic aspects of primates has made it hard for primatologists to decode the evolutionary history of these species. Researchers must optimize their own techniques to fully exploit the available samples. Lack of species-locus-specific primers also contributes to difficulties in using noninvasive genetic samples. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop a standardized technique to collecting samples noninvasively, propose newly designed species-locus-specific primers, and optimize conditions for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Macaca fascicularis, M. nemestrina, Trachypithecus cristatus, and T. obscurus. Nine new species-locus-specific primers for three different loci of mitochondrial DNA, namely D-loop, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and cytochrome b, were successfully designed. These primers proved to be efficient in amplifying larger datasets (up to ~1,000 bp) of the targeted species in the optimized PCR conditions. The species-locus-specific primers are able to anneal to host DNA alone in highly contaminated feces of highlighted species. They can also offer alternatives measures in avoiding contamination related to nuclear insertion of mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts).