Other affiliations: DIT University
Bio: Mohit Bajaj is an academic researcher from National Institute of Technology Delhi. The author has contributed to research in topics: AC power & Total harmonic distortion. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 52 publications receiving 373 citations. Previous affiliations of Mohit Bajaj include DIT University.
••01 Feb 2018
TL;DR: This paper demonstrates the efficient use of Internet of Things for the traditional agriculture by showing the use of Arduino and ESP8266 based monitored and controlled smart irrigation systems, which is also cost-effective and simple.
Abstract: This paper demonstrates the efficient use of Internet of Things for the traditional agriculture. It shows the use of Arduino and ESP8266 based monitored and controlled smart irrigation systems, which is also cost-effective and simple. It is beneficial for farmers to irrigate there land conveniently by the application of automatic irrigation system. This smart irrigation system has pH sensor, water flow sensor, temperature sensor and soil moisture sensor that measure respectively and based on these sensors arduino microcontroller drives the servo motor and pump. Arduino received the information and transmitted with ESP8266 Wi-Fi module wirelessly to the website through internet. This transmitted information is monitor and control by using IOT. This enables the remote control mechanism through a secure internet web connection to the user. A website has been prepared which present the actual time values and reference values of various factors needed by crops. Users can control water pumps and sprinklers through the website and keep an eye on the reference values which will help the farmer increase production with quality crops.
TL;DR: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) inspired methodology is proposed for PQ assessment of distorted distribution power systems under the presence of renewable-based DGs and validates the efficacy of the presented approach in assessing the overall PQ performance of each of the buses and the entire DN.
Abstract: The proliferation of not only power electronics supported consumption technologies but also the expansion of the renewable-based distributed generation (DG) systems has given rise to severe power quality (PQ) phenomena in consort with the offered technical, economic and environmental benefits under deregulated environment. The forthcoming complexity of distribution power networks caused by incorporation of a large number of DG units in deregulated electricity market unquestionably makes PQ assessment procedure a quite cumbersome one. In present work, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) inspired methodology is proposed for PQ assessment of distorted distribution power systems under the presence of renewable-based DGs. The proposed PQ assessment approach is based on formulating a unified power quality index (UPQI) for assessing the overall PQ performance of individual buses of the network along with the entire distribution network (DN) considered taking four PQ phenomena, viz. voltage harmonics, voltage sags, voltage unbalance and steady-state voltage profile at each bus into account. t. The application significance of the presented methodology is established by utilizing it on an IEEE 13 bus test distribution system modified through incorporating the nonlinear loads and DG systems based on three types of RES namely, photovoltaic (PV), wind and fuel cell, in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The results achieved validates the efficacy of the presented approach in assessing the overall PQ performance of each of the buses and the entire DN along with benchmarking it with respect to the threshold level of unity. Based on obtained results, also the comparative analysis is performed among PQ performances of DN with selected three RES based DGs. Moreover, the impact of the employing the custom power devices (CPDs) as well as excessive penetration level of renewable energy over PQ performance of distribution network, are also investigated by the application of the formulated index.
••13 Mar 2018
TL;DR: This system helps the user to control the sources of energy, manually and remotely using smart phone or personal computer, and is very efficient, cheaper and flexible in operation.
Abstract: In this paper, authors have focused on controlling of hybrid energy system using IOT. There is various combination of energy and all of them are alternative to each other like solar energy, wind energy, bio fuel, fuel cell, etc. But the need of controlling of hybrid energy system arises when it is installed for domestic or commercial purpose. At this point IOT plays an important role in controlling system. The main criteria being switching between the two sources of energy i.e. solar and wind energy without any inconvenience through a website using ESP8266 Wi-Fi module. The data is transmitted wirelessly through website to ESP8266 module which controls the sources of energy. The transmitted data is controlled remotely using IOT. This enables user to have flexible control mechanism remotely through a secured internet web connection. This system helps the user to control the sources of energy, manually and remotely using smart phone or personal computer. This system is very efficient, cheaper and flexible in operation.
TL;DR: The optimization efficiency and superiority of the proposed multi-objective firefly algorithm based hosting capacity enhancement approach is validated by comparing the results with those obtained by popular multi-Objective PSO (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) under similar objectives.
Abstract: In spite of being economically viable for numerous applications, renewable energy cannot realise its true penetration potential until some of the barriers are not tackled with excellence. Such barriers are harmonic distortion, distribution cable’s ampacity and voltage rise limits, those put bound on the maximum allowable penetration level of renewable energy. This paper formulates the enhancement of power quality-constrained hosting capacity (HC) as a multi-objective optimization (MOO) problem under several constraints of system’s performance indices (PIs). The considered performance indices are individual order and total harmonic distortion in the line current and point of common coupling (PCC)’s voltage, load power factor (PF), distribution line’s ampacity and steady-state voltage profile. In the formulated multi-objective optimization model, an optimal design of a third-order damped filter and size of the distributed generation (DG) unit is simultaneously determined for achieving maximum hosting capacity and power factor at the PCC while keeping system’s other indices such as total voltage harmonic distortion (TVHD) and total filter cost (FC) incurred at a minimum by obtaining a best-compromised solution using the newly proposed Pareto-based multi-objective firefly algorithm (MOFA). The extension of the multi-objective firefly algorithm is considered for producing the Pareto optimal front and various conclusions are drawn by analysing the trade-offs among the objectives by plotting the same on different 2-axis planes. The optimization efficiency and superiority of the proposed multi-objective firefly algorithm based hosting capacity enhancement approach is validated by comparing the results with those obtained by popular multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) under similar objectives. Also, the results of the proposed methodology are compared with those achieved from one of the most recently introduced hosting capacity enhancement approaches in literature. Eventually, the impacts of different background voltage distortion (BVD) levels and load-side’s nonlinearity levels (NLLs) on filter performance, particularly filter cost as well as enhanced hosting capacity, are analysed and various conclusions are drawn.
TL;DR: A case study explores the background of the digitization project, the practices implemented, and the critiques of the project, which aims to provide access to a plethora of information to EPA employees, scientists, and researchers.
Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides access to information on a variety of topics related to the environment and strives to inform citizens of health risks. The EPA also has an extensive library network that consists of 26 libraries throughout the United States, which provide access to a plethora of information to EPA employees, scientists, and researchers. The EPA implemented a reorganization project to digitize their materials so they would be more accessible to a wider range of users, but this plan was drastically accelerated when the EPA was threatened with a budget cut. It chose to close and reduce the hours and services of some of their libraries. As a result, the agency was accused of denying users the “right to know” by making information unavailable, not providing an adequate strategic plan, and discarding vital materials. This case study explores the background of the digitization project, the practices implemented, and the critiques of the project.
TL;DR: A survey aimed at summarizing the current state of the art regarding smart irrigation systems, which determines the parameters that are monitored in irrigation systems regarding water quantity and quality, soil characteristics and weather conditions.
Abstract: Water management is paramount in countries with water scarcity. This also affects agriculture, as a large amount of water is dedicated to that use. The possible consequences of global warming lead to the consideration of creating water adaptation measures to ensure the availability of water for food production and consumption. Thus, studies aimed at saving water usage in the irrigation process have increased over the years. Typical commercial sensors for agriculture irrigation systems are very expensive, making it impossible for smaller farmers to implement this type of system. However, manufacturers are currently offering low-cost sensors that can be connected to nodes to implement affordable systems for irrigation management and agriculture monitoring. Due to the recent advances in IoT and WSN technologies that can be applied in the development of these systems, we present a survey aimed at summarizing the current state of the art regarding smart irrigation systems. We determine the parameters that are monitored in irrigation systems regarding water quantity and quality, soil characteristics and weather conditions. We provide an overview of the most utilized nodes and wireless technologies. Lastly, we will discuss the challenges and the best practices for the implementation of sensor-based irrigation systems.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an update on recent developments and generate a relevant database for costs and emissions for decision-making purposes for integrating an energy storage system with the power network to manage unpredictable loads.
Abstract: Incorporating renewables in the power grid has challenges in terms of the stability, reliability, and acceptable operation of the power system network. One possible solution is to integrate an energy storage system with the power network to manage unpredictable loads. The implementation of an energy storage system depends on the site, the source of electrical energy, and its associated costs and the environmental impacts. Moreover, an up-to-date database with cost numbers, energy use, and resulting emissions is required for decision-making purposes. This paper reviews the techno-economic and environmental assessments of mechanical, electro-chemical, chemical, and thermal to give an update on recent developments and generate a relevant database for costs and emissions. We reviewed 91 publications, 58 on techno-economic assessment and 33 on life cycle assessment. We found that, because of economies of scale, the levelized cost of energy decreases with an increase in storage duration. In addition, performance parameters such as round-trip efficiency, cycle life, and cycle length highly influence the final costs and environmental footprints of various storage technologies. However, further research is required to build a bottom-up model that can handle all the technical parameters to quantify the levelized cost of energy and environmental footprints of the storage systems simultaneously.
01 Oct 2003
TL;DR: In this article, a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) is used to compensate for the distortions in source current and voltage at the point of common coupling, where the DSTATCOM is connected with a filter capacitor that allows the high frequency component of the current to pass.
Abstract: The paper discusses load compensation using a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM). It is assumed that the DSTATCOM is associated with a load that is remote from the supply. It is shown that the operation of a DSTATCOM assuming that it is connected to a stiff source in such situations will result in distortions in source current and voltage at the point of common coupling. To avoid this, the DSTATCOM is connected in parallel with a filter capacitor that allows the high frequency component of the current to pass. However, this generates control issues in tracking, as standard controls such as a hysteresis control are not suitable in these circumstances. This paper proposes a new switching control scheme and demonstrates its suitability for this problem. It also proposes a scheme in which the fundamental sequence components of a three-phase signal can be computed from its samples. The overall performance of the proposed scheme is verified using digital computer simulation studies.
TL;DR: In this article, an overview of microgrid configurations is given, and possible structure options and control methods of DER units are presented, which is followed by the descriptions of system controls and power management strategies for AC microgrids.
Abstract: The increased penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) is challenging the entire architecture of conventional electrical power system. Microgrid paradigm, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the future power grid. In this paper, an overview of microgrid configurations is given. Then, possible structure options and control methods of DER units are presented, which is followed by the descriptions of system controls and power management strategies for AC microgrids. Finally, future trends of microgrids are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible power system.