Bio: Monika Blössner is an academic researcher from World Health Organization. The author has contributed to research in topics: Malnutrition & Population. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 22 publications receiving 9382 citations. Previous affiliations of Monika Blössner include Johns Hopkins University & Whittington Hospital.
TL;DR: The need for effective interventions starting as early as infancy to reverse anticipated trends of childhood overweight and obesity have increased dramatically since 1990 are confirmed.
Abstract: Background: Childhood obesity is associated with serious health problems and the risk of premature illness and death later in life. Monitoring related trends is important. Objective: The objective was to quantify the worldwide prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children on the basis of the new World Health Organization standards. Design: A total of 450 nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from 144 countries were analyzed. Overweight and obesity were defined as the proportion of preschool children with values .2 SDs and .3 SDs, respectively, from the World Health Organization growth standard median. Being “at risk of overweight” was defined as the proportion with values .1 SD and 2 SDs, respectively. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to estimate the rates and numbers of affected children. Results: In 2010, 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight and obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% (95% CI: 3.2%, 5.2%) in 1990 to 6.7% (95% CI: 5.6%, 7.7%) in 2010. This trend is expected to reach 9.1% (95% CI: 7.3%, 10.9%), or ’60 million, in 2020. The estimated prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Africa in 2010 was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.4%, 9.5%) and is expected to reach 12.7% (95% CI: 10.6%, 14.8%) in 2020. The prevalence is lower in Asia than in Africa (4.9% in 2010), but the number of affected children (18 million) is higher in Asia. Conclusions: Childhood overweight and obesity have increased dramatically since 1990. These findings confirm the need for effective interventions starting as early as infancy to reverse anticipated trends. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1257‐64.
TL;DR: Comparison of child growth patterns in 54 countries with WHO standards shows that growth faltering in early childhood is even more pronounced than suggested by previous analyses based on the National Center for Health Statistics reference, confirming the need to scale up interventions during the window of opportunity defined by pregnancy and the first 2 years of life.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to describe worldwide growth-faltering patterns by using the new World Health Organization (WHO) standards. METHODS: We analyzed information available from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, comprising data from national anthropometric surveys from 54 countries. Anthropometric data comprise weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, and weight-for-length/height z scores. The WHO regions were used to aggregate countries: Europe and Central Asia; Latin America and the Caribbean; North Africa and Middle East; South Asia; and sub-Saharan Africa. RESULTS: Sample sizes ranged from 1000 to 47 000 children. Weight for length/height starts slightly above the standard in children aged 1 to 2 months and falters slightly until 9 months of age, picking up after that age and remaining close to the standard thereafter. Weight for age starts close to the standard and falters moderately until reaching approximately −1 z at 24 months and remaining reasonably stable after that. Length/height for age also starts close to the standard and falters dramatically until 24 months, showing noticeable bumps just after 24, 36, and 48 months but otherwise increasing slightly after 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: Comparison of child growth patterns in 54 countries with WHO standards shows that growth faltering in early childhood is even more pronounced than suggested by previous analyses based on the National Center for Health Statistics reference. These findings confirm the need to scale up interventions during the window of opportunity defined by pregnancy and the first 2 years of life, including prevention of low birth weight and appropriate infant feeding practices.
TL;DR: A significant proportion of deaths in young children worldwide is attributable to low weight-for-age, and efforts to reduce malnutrition should be a policy priority.
Abstract: Previous analyses derived the relative risk (RR) of dying as a result of low weight-for-age and calculated the proportion of child deaths worldwide attributable to underweight. The objectives were to examine whether the risk of dying because of underweight varies by cause of death and to estimate the fraction of deaths by cause attributable to underweight. Data were obtained from investigators of 10 cohort studies with both weight-for-age category ( -1 SD) and cause of death information. All 10 studies contributed information on weight-for-age and risk of diarrhea pneumonia and all-cause mortality; however only 6 studies contributed information on deaths because of measles and only 3 studies contributed information on deaths because of malaria or fever. With use of weighted random effects models we related the log mortality rate by cause and anthropometric status in each study to derive cause-specific RRs of dying because of undernutrition. Prevalences of each weight-for-age category were obtained from analyses of 310 national nutrition surveys. With use of the RR and prevalence information we then calculated the fraction of deaths by cause attributable to undernutrition. The RR of mortality because of low weight-for-age was elevated for each cause of death and for all-cause mortality. Overall 52.5% of all deaths in young children were attributable to undernutrition varying from 44.8% for deaths because of measles to 60.7% for deaths because of diarrhea. A significant proportion of deaths in young children worldwide is attributable to low weight-for-age and efforts to reduce malnutrition should be a policy priority. (authors)
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: The Programme of Nutrition presents this vast compilation of data on worldwide patterns and trends in child growth and malnutrition in the hope that it will alert decision-makers to how much remains to be done to ensure children's healthy growth and development.
Abstract: ii The designations employed and the presentation of material do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, its authorities, its current or former official name or the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. We are guilty of many errors and many faults, but our worst crime is abandoning the children, neglecting the foundation of life. Many of the things we need can wait. The child cannot. Right now is the time his bones are being formed, his blood is being made and his senses are being developed. To him we cannot answer " Tomorrow ". His name is " Today ". We dedicate this work to the world's children in the hope that it will alert decision-makers to how much remains to be done to ensure children's healthy growth and development. " " WHO/NUT/97.4 iv Acknowledgements The Programme of Nutrition appreciates the strong support from numerous individuals, institutions, governments, and nongovernmental and international organizations, without whose continual collaboration this compilation would not have been possible. A special note of gratitude is due to all those who provided standardized information and reanalyses of original data sets to conform to the database requirements. Thanks to such international cooperation in keeping the Global Database up-to-date, the Programme of Nutrition is able to present this vast compilation of data on worldwide patterns and trends in child growth and malnutrition. SD Standard deviation WHO World Health Organization Z-score (or SD-score) The deviation of an individual's value from the median value of a reference population, divided by the standard deviation of the reference population.
TL;DR: Estimates show that attention should be paid to monitoring levels and trends of overweight in children, however, not at the expense of decreasing international commitments to alleviating undernutrition.
Abstract: Obesity during childhood is a matter of growing concern. Several reports show increasing rates of obesity in developed countries whereas the extent of the problem in developing countries remains unknown. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by quantifying the prevalence and trends of overweight among preschool children in developing countries. One hundred sixty nationally representative crosssectional surveys from 94 countries were analyzed in a standardized way to allow comparisons across countries and over time. Overweight was defined as a weight-for-height >2 SDs from the National Center for Health Statistics/World Health Organization international reference median. Prevalences of wasted children (< -2 SDs) are also presented to enable comparisons between both ends of the distribution. The global prevalence of overweight was 3.3%. Some countries and regions however had considerably higher rates and overweight was shown to increase in 16 of 38 countries with trend data. Countries with the highest prevalences of overweight are located mainly in the Middle East North Africa and Latin America. Rates of wasting were generally higher than those of overweight; Africa and Asia had wasting rates 2.5-3.5 times higher than overweight rates. Countries with high wasting rates tended to have low overweight rates and vice versa. These estimates show that attention should be paid to monitoring levels and trends of overweight in children. This however should not be done at the expense of decreasing international commitments to alleviating undernutrition. The data presented confirm that undernutrition remains a major public health problem worldwide. (authors)
University of Washington1, Sapienza University of Rome2, Mekelle University3, University of Texas at San Antonio4, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences5, Debre markos University6, Emory University7, University of Oxford8, University of Cartagena9, United Nations Population Fund10, University of Birmingham11, Stanford University12, Aga Khan University13, University of Melbourne14, National Taiwan University15, University of Cambridge16, University of California, San Diego17, Public Health Foundation of India18, Public Health England19, University of Peradeniya20, Harvard University21, National Institutes of Health22, Tehran University of Medical Sciences23, Auckland University of Technology24, University of Sheffield25, University of Western Australia26, Karolinska Institutet27, Birzeit University28, Brandeis University29, American Cancer Society30, Ochsner Medical Center31, Yonsei University32, University of Bristol33, Heidelberg University34, Vanderbilt University35, South African Medical Research Council36, Jordan University of Science and Technology37, New Generation University College38, Northeastern University39, Simmons College40, Norwegian Institute of Public Health41, Boston University42, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention43, University of Bari44, University of São Paulo45, University of Otago46, University of Crete47, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh48, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center49, Teikyo University50, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre51, University of Tokyo52, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health53, Heriot-Watt University54, University of Alabama at Birmingham55, Griffith University56, National Center for Disease Control and Public Health57, University of California, Irvine58, Johns Hopkins University59, New York University60, University of Queensland61, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais62, National Research University – Higher School of Economics63, University of Bergen64, Columbia University65, Shandong University66, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill67, Fujita Health University68, Korea University69, Chongqing Medical University70, Zhejiang University71
TL;DR: The global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013 is estimated using a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).
Abstract: Summary Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013. Methods We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19 244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Findings Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m 2 or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4–29·3) to 36·9% (36·3–37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3–30·2) to 38·0% (37·5–38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9–24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7–23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7–8·6) to 12·9% (12·3–13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1–8·8) to 13·4% (13·0–13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Interpretation Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
TL;DR: The high mortality and disease burden resulting from these nutrition-related factors make a compelling case for the urgent implementation of interventions to reduce their occurrence or ameliorate their consequences.
Abstract: Maternal and child undernutrition is highly prevalent in low-income and middle-income countries, resulting in substantial increases in mortality and overall disease burden. In this paper, we present new analyses to estimate the effects of the risks related to measures of undernutrition, as well as to suboptimum breastfeeding practices on mortality and disease. We estimated that stunting, severe wasting, and intrauterine growth restriction together were responsible for 2·2 million deaths and 21% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for children younger than 5 years. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc were estimated to be responsible for 0·6 million and 0·4 million deaths, respectively, and a combined 9% of global childhood DALYs. Iron and iodine deficiencies resulted in few child deaths, and combined were responsible for about 0·2% of global childhood DALYs. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for maternal mortality added 115 000 deaths and 0·4% of global total DALYs. Suboptimum breastfeeding was estimated to be responsible for 1·4 million child deaths and 44 million DALYs (10% of DALYs in children younger than 5 years). In an analysis that accounted for co-exposure of these nutrition-related factors, they were together responsible for about 35% of child deaths and 11% of the total global disease burden. The high mortality and disease burden resulting from these nutrition-related factors make a compelling case for the urgent implementation of interventions to reduce their occurrence or ameliorate their consequences.
TL;DR: It is estimated that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011.
Abstract: Maternal and child malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries encompasses both undernutrition and a growing problem with overweight and obesity. Low body-mass index, indicative of maternal undernutrition, has declined somewhat in the past two decades but continues to be prevalent in Asia and Africa. Prevalence of maternal overweight has had a steady increase since 1980 and exceeds that of underweight in all regions. Prevalence of stunting of linear growth of children younger than 5 years has decreased during the past two decades, but is higher in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere and globally affected at least 165 million children in 2011; wasting affected at least 52 million children. Deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc result in deaths; deficiencies of iodine and iron, together with stunting, can contribute to children not reaching their developmental potential. Maternal undernutrition contributes to fetal growth restriction, which increases the risk of neonatal deaths and, for survivors, of stunting by 2 years of age. Suboptimum breastfeeding results in an increased risk for mortality in the first 2 years of life. We estimate that undernutrition in the aggregate--including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding--is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011. Maternal overweight and obesity result in increased maternal morbidity and infant mortality. Childhood overweight is becoming an increasingly important contributor to adult obesity, diabetes, and non-communicable diseases. The high present and future disease burden caused by malnutrition in women of reproductive age, pregnancy, and children in the first 2 years of life should lead to interventions focused on these groups.
TL;DR: The American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals for Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders are revealed, with a focus on preventing, treating, and preventing heart disease and stroke.
Abstract: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e3 1. About These Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e7 2. American Heart Association's 2020 Impact Goals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e10 3. Cardiovascular Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e21 4. Subclinical Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e45 5. Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Angina Pectoris . . . . . . . . .e54 6. Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e68 7. High Blood Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .e88 8. Congenital Cardiovascular Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e97 9. Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e102 10. Disorders …