Author

# Moshe Matalon

Other affiliations: Tel Aviv University, Cornell University, New York University ...read more

Bio: Moshe Matalon is an academic researcher from University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. The author has contributed to research in topics: Premixed flame & Diffusion flame. The author has an hindex of 35, co-authored 158 publications receiving 5202 citations. Previous affiliations of Moshe Matalon include Tel Aviv University & Cornell University.

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TL;DR: In this article, an equation for the propagation of the discontinuity surface for arbitrary flame shapes in general fluid flows is derived, where the structure of the flame is considered to consist of a boundary layer in which the chemical reactions occur, located inside another boundary layer, in which transport processes dominate.

Abstract: Early treatments of flames as gasdynamic discontinuities in a fluid flow are based on several hypotheses and/or on phenomenological assumptions. The simplest and earliest of such analyses, by Landau and by Darrieus prescribed the flame speed to be constant. Thus, in their analysis they ignored the structure of the flame, i.e. the details of chemical reactions, and transport processes. Employing this model to study the stability of a plane flame, they concluded that plane flames are unconditionally unstable. Yet plane flames are observed in the laboratory. To overcome this difficulty, others have attempted to improve on this model, generally through phenomenological assumptions to replace the assumption of constant velocity. In the present work we take flame structure into account and derive an equation for the propagation of the discontinuity surface for arbitrary flame shapes in general fluid flows. The structure of the flame is considered to consist of a boundary layer in which the chemical reactions occur, located inside another boundary layer in which transport processes dominate. We employ the method of matched asymptotic expansions to obtain an equation for the evolution of the shape and location of the flame front. Matching the boundary-layer solutions to the outer gasdynamic flow, we derive the appropriate jump conditions across the front. We also derive an equation for the vorticity produced in the flame, and briefly discuss the stability of a plane flame, obtaining corrections to the formula of Landau and Darrieus.

677 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a general invariant expression for the stretch experienced by a flame due either to its motion or to the nonuniform flow of the gas through it is derived in terms of the local fluid velocity and the shape of the flame front.

Abstract: A general invariant expression is derived for the stretch experienced by a flame due either to its motion or to the nonuniform flow of the gas through it. This expression is given in terms of the local fluid velocity and the shape of the flame front. Specific examples in which the flame stretch takes a simplified form are discussed. Some remarks are made regarding the relation between the three distinct properties of flames: stretch, speed and temperature.

296 citations

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01 Jan 2005

TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess accomplishments of theory in combustion over the past fifty years and prospects for the future and emphasize that development of theory necessarily goes hand-in-hand with specification of a model.

Abstract: In honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the Combustion Institute, we are asked to assess accomplishments of theory in combustion over the past fifty years and prospects for the future. The title of our article is chosen to emphasize that development of theory necessarily goes hand-in-hand with specification of a model. Good conceptual models underlie successful mathematical theories. Models and theories are discussed here for deflagrations, detonations, diffusion flames, ignition, propellant combustion, and turbulent combustion. In many of these areas, the genesis of mathematical theories occurred during the past fifty years, and in all of them significant advances are anticipated in the future. Increasing interaction between theory and computation will aid this progress. We hope that, although certainly not complete in topical coverage or reference citation, the presentation may suggest useful directions for future research in combustion theory.

279 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the dependence of Markstein number on mixture strength is explicitly determined for hydrogen-air, hydrocarbon-air and alcohol-air mixtures over a range of equivalence ratio.

Abstract: Both theory and experiment predict a linear relationship between flame speed and stretch, and the sensitivity of this dependence is given in terms of the Markstein number. In this note the dependence of Markstein number on mixture strength is explicitly determined. Results are presented for hydrogen-air, hydrocarbon-air, and alcohol-air mixtures over a range of equivalence ratio.

270 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the stability of an outwardly propagating spherical flame accounting for both hydrodynamic and thermodiffusive effects was examined and an expression for the determination of the critical size, or critical Peclet number, which depends on the thermal expansion coefficient and on the Lewis number was provided.

Abstract: We examine the stability of an outwardly propagating spherical flame accounting for both hydrodynamic and thermodiffusive effects. For Lewis numbers less than a critical value Le∗ Le∗, the flame, which is stable to thermodiffusive effects, becomes unstable only after a critical size is reached. This instability is hydrodynamic in nature and is caused by the thermal expansion of the gas. In this study we provide an expression for the determination of the critical size, or a critical Peclet number, which depends on the thermal expansion coefficient and on the Lewis number. The explicit dependence on all the relevant physicochemical parameters enables us to compare our results with experimental data.

270 citations

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01 Jan 1988TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the inner structure of the flamelets is one-dimensional and time dependent, and a new coordinate transformation using the mixture fraction Z as independent variable leads to a universal description.

Abstract: The laminar flamelet concept covers a regime in turbulent combustion where chemistry (as compared to transport processes) is fast such that it occurs in asymptotically thin layers—called flamelets—embedded within the turbulent flow field. This situation occurs in most practical combustion systems including reciprocating engines and gas turbine combustors. The inner structure of the flamelets is one-dimensional and time dependent. This is shown by an asymptotic expansion for the Damkohler number of the rate determining reaction which is assumed to be large. Other non-dimensional chemical parameters such as the nondimensional activation energy or Zeldovich number may also be large and may be related to the Damkohler number by a distinguished asymptoiic limit. Examples of the flamelet structure are presented using onestep model kinetics or a reduced four-step quasi-global mechanism for methane flames. For non-premixed combustion a formal coordinate transformation using the mixture fraction Z as independent variable leads to a universal description. The instantaneous scalar dissipation rate χ of the conserved scalar Z is identified to represent the diffusion time scale that is compared with the chemical time scale in the definition of the Damkohler number. Flame stretch increases the scalar dissipation rate in a turbulent flow field. If it exceeds a critical value χ q the diffusion flamelet will extinguish. Considering the probability density distribution of χ , it is shown how local extinction reduces the number of burnable flamelets and thereby the mean reaction rate. Furthermore, local extinction events may interrupt the connection to burnable flamelets which are not yet reached by an ignition source and will therefore not be ignited. This phenomenon, described by percolation theory, is used to derive criteria for the stability of lifted flames. It is shown how values of ∋ q obtained from laminar experiments scale with turbulent residence times to describe lift-off of turbulent jet diffusion flames. For non-premixed combustion it is concluded that the outer mixing field—by imposing the scalar dissipation rate—dominates the flamelet behaviour because the flamelet is attached to the surface of stoichiometric mixture. The flamelet response may be two-fold: burning or non-burning quasi-stationary states. This is the reason why classical turbulence models readily can be used in the flamelet regime of non-premixed combustion. The extent to which burnable yet non-burning flamelets and unsteady transition events contribute to the overall statistics in turbulent non-premixed flames needs still to be explored further. For premixed combustion the interaction between flamelets and the outer flow is much stronger because the flame front can propagate normal to itself. The chemical time scale and the thermal diffusivity determine the flame thickness and the flame velocity. The flamelet concept is valid if the flame thickness is smaller than the smallest length scale in the turbulent flow, the Kolmogorov scale. Also, if the turbulence intensity v′ is larger than the laminar flame velocity, there is a local interaction between the flame front and the turbulent flow which corrugates the front. A new length scale L G =v F 3 /∈ , the Gibson scale, is introduced which describes the smaller size of the burnt gas pockets of the front. Here v F is the laminar flame velocity and ∈ the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy in the oncoming flow. Eddies smaller than L G cannot corrugate the flame front due to their smaller circumferential velocity while larger eddies up to the macro length scale will only convect the front within the flow field. Flame stretch effects are the most efficient at the smallest scale L G . If stretch combined with differential diffusion of temperature and the deficient reactant, represented by a Lewis number different from unity, is imposed on the flamelet, its inner structure will respond leading to a change in flame velocity and in some cases to extinction. Transient effects of this response are much more important than for diffusion flamelets. A new mechanism of premixed flamelet extinction, based on the diffusion of radicals out of the reaction zone, is described by Rogg. Recent progress in the Bray-Moss-Libby formulation and the pdf-transport equation approach by Pope are presented. Finally, different approaches to predict the turbulent flame velocity including an argument based on the fractal dimension of the flame front are discussed.

1,268 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a review of recent developments in flame theory is provided, in sufficient detail to give the reader a comprehensive introduction to the field, including the stability and flammability limits of planar fronts, cellular flames, flame stretch, turbulent and self-turbulizing flames, hydrodynamic interactions between weakly turbulent gas flows and wrinkled flame fronts, molecular diffusion effects of intermediate species involved in chain reactions.

Abstract: General discussion is given of the structure and dynamics of wrinkled fronts of premixed flames in turbulent and laminar flow fields. Recent theoretical analyses and experimental results leading to complete description of the coupling between diffusive transport processes, the hydrodynamical phenomena associated with gas expansion, complex chemical kinetics and acceleration of gravity are presented in detail. The following topics are considered: stability and flammability limits of planar fronts, cellular flames, flame stretch, turbulent and self-turbulizing flames, hydrodynamic interactions between weakly turbulent gas flows and wrinkled flame fronts, molecular diffusion effects of intermediate species involved in chain reactions. The main objective of this paper is to provide a review for non-specialists of recent developments in flame theory, in sufficient detail to give the reader a comprehensive introduction to the field.

912 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors highlight previous influential studies and ongoing research to use this chemical as a viable energy vector for power applications, emphasizing the challenges that each of the reviewed technologies faces before implementation and commercial deployment is achieved at a larger scale.

Abstract: A potential enabler of a low carbon economy is the energy vector hydrogen. However, issues associated with hydrogen storage and distribution are currently a barrier for its implementation. Hence, other indirect storage media such as ammonia and methanol are currently being considered. Of these, ammonia is a carbon free carrier which offers high energy density; higher than compressed air. Hence, it is proposed that ammonia, with its established transportation network and high flexibility, could provide a practical next generation system for energy transportation, storage and use for power generation. Therefore, this review highlights previous influential studies and ongoing research to use this chemical as a viable energy vector for power applications, emphasizing the challenges that each of the reviewed technologies faces before implementation and commercial deployment is achieved at a larger scale. The review covers technologies such as ammonia in cycles either for power or CO2 removal, fuel cells, reciprocating engines, gas turbines and propulsion technologies, with emphasis on the challenges of using the molecule and current understanding of the fundamental combustion patterns of ammonia blends.

908 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a detailed kinetic mechanism for the pyrolysis and combustion of a large variety of fuels at high temperature conditions is presented, and the authors identify aspects of the mechanism that require further revision.

Abstract: The primary objective of the present endeavor is to collect, consolidate, and review the vast amount of experimental data on the laminar flame speeds of hydrocarbon and oxygenated fuels that have been reported in recent years, analyze them by using a detailed kinetic mechanism for the pyrolysis and combustion of a large variety of fuels at high temperature conditions, and thereby identify aspects of the mechanism that require further revision. The review and assessment was hierarchically conducted, in the sequence of the foundational C0–C4 species; the reference fuels of alkanes (n-heptane, iso-octane, n-decane, n-dodecane), cyclo-alkanes (cyclohexane and methyl-cyclo-hexane) and the aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene); and the oxygenated fuels of alcohols, C3H6O isomers, ethers (dimethyl ether and ethyl tertiary butyl ether), and methyl esters up to methyl decanoate. Mixtures of some of these fuels, including those with hydrogen, were also considered. The comprehensive nature of the present mechanism and effort is emphasized.

817 citations

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TL;DR: A comprehensive overview of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H 2 ICEs) can be found in this paper, where the authors discuss the fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

Abstract: The threat posed by climate change and the striving for security of energy supply are issues high on the political agenda these days. Governments are putting strategic plans in motion to decrease primary energy use, take carbon out of fuels and facilitate modal shifts. Taking a prominent place in these strategic plans is hydrogen as a future energy carrier. A number of manufacturers are now leasing demonstration vehicles to consumers using hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines (H 2 ICEs) as well as fuel cell vehicles. Developing countries in particular are pushing for H 2 ICEs (powering two- and three-wheelers as well as passenger cars and buses) to decrease local pollution at an affordable cost. This article offers a comprehensive overview of H 2 ICEs. Topics that are discussed include fundamentals of the combustion of hydrogen, details on the different mixture formation strategies and their emissions characteristics, measures to convert existing vehicles, dedicated hydrogen engine features, a state of the art on increasing power output and efficiency while controlling emissions and modeling.

743 citations