Mubarak Ali Khan
Bio: Mubarak Ali Khan is an academic researcher from Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Callus & Biofuel. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 75 publications receiving 1488 citations. Previous affiliations of Mubarak Ali Khan include Quaid-i-Azam University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology.
TL;DR: A review based on the biological role of Piper nigrum can provide that the peppercorn or other parts can be use as crude drug for various diseases while the secondary metabolites such as piperine can be used for specific diseases.
Abstract: Piper nigrum L. is considered the king of spices throughout the world due to its pungent principle piperine. Peppercorn of Piper nigrum as a whole or its active components are used in most of the food items. Different parts of Piper nigrum including secondary metabolites are also used as drug, preservative, insecticidal and larvicidal control agents. Biologically Piper nigrum is very important specie. The biological role of this specie is explained in different experiments that peppercorn and secondary metabolites of Piper nigrum can be used as Antiapoptotic, Antibacterial, Anti-Colon toxin, Antidepressant, Antifungal, Antidiarrhoeal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimutagenic, Anti-metastatic activity, Antioxidative, Antiriyretic, Antispasmodic, Antispermatogenic, Antitumor, Antithyroid, Ciprofloxacin potentiator, Cold extremities, Gastric ailments, Hepatoprotective, Insecticidal activity, Intermittent fever and Larvisidal activity. Other roles of this specie includes protection against diabetes induced oxidative stress; Piperine protect oxidation of various chemicals, decreased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inhibition of aryl hydroxylation, increased bioavailability of vaccine and sparteine, increase the bioavailability of active compounds, delayed elimination of antiepileptic drug, increased orocecal transit time, piperine influenced and activate the biomembrane to absorb variety of active agents, increased serum concentration, reducing mutational events, tumour inhibitory activity, Piperine inhibite mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, growth stimulatory activity and chemopreventive effect. This review based on the biological role of Piper nigrum can provide that the peppercorn or other parts can be used as crude drug for various diseases while the secondary metabolites such as piperine can be used for specific diseases.
TL;DR: The pertinent role of plant terpenoids in the biosynthesis of AgNPs, as capping and reducing agents for development of uniform size and shape AgNps is presented.
Abstract: Green chemistry is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the generation of hazardous substances. Since the last few years, natural products especially plant secondary metabolites have been extensively explored for their potency to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The plant-based AgNPs are safer, energy efficient, eco-friendly, and less toxic than chemically synthesized counterparts. The secondary metabolites, ubiquitously found in plants especially the terpenoid-rich essential oils, have a significant role in AgNPs synthesis. Terpenoids belong to the largest family of natural products and are found in all kinds of organisms. Their involvement in the synthesis of plant-based AgNPs has got much attention in the recent years. The current article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present the pertinent role of plant terpenoids in the biosynthesis of AgNPs, as capping and reducing agents for development of uniform size and shape AgNPs. An emphasis on the important role of FTIR in the identification and elucidation of major functional groups in terpenoids for AgNPs synthesis has also been reviewed in this manuscript. It was found that no such article is available that has discussed the role of plant terpenoids in the green synthesis of AgNPs.
TL;DR: This review examines studies published in the last decade that deal with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in plants and their antibacterial activity.
Abstract: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants and plant extracts (green synthesis) has been developed into an important innovative biotechnology, especially in the application of such particles in the control of pathogenic bacteria. This is a safer technology, biologically and environmentally, than synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical or physical methods. Plants are preferable to microbes as agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles because plants do not need to be maintained in cell culture. The antibacterial activity of bionanoparticles has been extensively explored during the past decade. This review examines studies published in the last decade that deal with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in plants and their antibacterial activity.
TL;DR: Assay of antioxidant activity of in vitro and in vivo grown tissues revealed that significantly higher antioxidant activity was observed in callus than all other regenerated tissues and wild-grown plants.
Abstract: The morphogenic potential and free-radical scavenging activity of the medicinal plant, Silybum marianum L. (milk thistle) were investigated. Callus development and shoot organogenesis were induced from leaf explants of wild-grown plants incubated on media supplemented with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). The highest frequency of callus induction was observed on explants incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 mg l−1 6-benzyladenine (BA) after 20 days of culture. Subsequent transfer of callogenic explants onto MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l−1 gibberellic acid (GA3) and 1.0 mg l−1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) resulted in 25.5 ± 2.0 shoots per culture flask after 30 days following culture. Moreover, when shoots were transferred to an elongation medium, the longest shoots were observed on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg l−1 BA and 1.0 mg l−1 NAA, and these shoots were rooted on a PGR-free MS basal medium. Assay of antioxidant activity of in vitro and in vivo grown tissues revealed that significantly higher antioxidant activity was observed in callus than all other regenerated tissues and wild-grown plants.
TL;DR: It is concluded that the AgNPs can be effectively utilized for the enhancement of bioactive antioxidants in the callus cultures of C. tuberculata, a highly medicinal and threatened plant.
Abstract: Elicited plant in vitro cultures are gaining more interest worldwide for their potential in the uniform production of industrially important secondary metabolites. In the present study, different ratios of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and plant growth regulators (PGRs) were supplemented to in vitro cultures for the sustainable production of biomass and antioxidant secondary metabolites through callus cultures of Caralluma tuberculata. Results indicated that various concentrations of AgNPs significantly affected the callus proliferation and substantially increased the callus biomass, when combined with PGRs in the MS (Murashige and Skoog) media. The highest fresh (0.78 g/l) and dry (0.051 g/l) biomass accumulation of callus was observed in the cultures raised in vitro at 60 µg/l AgNPs in combination with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D plus 3.0 mg/l BA. Phytochemical analysis of the callus cultures showed higher production of phenolics (TPC:3.0 mg), flavonoids (TFC:1.8 mg), phenylalanine ammonialyase activity (PAL: 5.8 U/mg) and antioxidant activity (90%), respectively, in the callus cultures established on MS media in the presence of 90 ug/l AgNPs. Moreover, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD: 4.8 U/mg), peroxidase (POD: 3.3 U/mg), catalase (CAT: 2.5 U/mg) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX: 1.9 U/mg) were detected at higher level (90 ug/l) of AgNPs tested alone for callus proliferation in the MS media. It may be concluded that the AgNPs can be effectively utilized for the enhancement of bioactive antioxidants in the callus cultures of C. tuberculata, a highly medicinal and threatened plant. This protocol can be scaled up for the industrial production of plant biomass and pharmacologically potent metabolites in C. tuberculata.
TL;DR: It is clear that the above can lead to confusion when scientists of different countries are trying to communicate with each other, so an internationally recognized system of naming organisms is created.
Abstract: It is clear that the above can lead to confusion when scientists of different countries are trying to communicate with each other. Another example is the burrowing rodent called a gopher found throughout the western United States. In the southeastern United States the term gopher refers to a burrowing turtle very similar to the desert tortoise found in the American southwest. One final example; two North American mammals known as the elk and the caribou are known in Europe as the reindeer and the elk. We never sing “Rudolph the Red-nosed elk”! Confused? This was the reason for creating an internationally recognized system of naming organisms. To avoid confusion, living organisms are assigned a scientific name based on Latin or Latinized words. The English sparrow is Passer domesticus or Passer domesticus (italics or underlining these two names is the official written representation of a scientific name). Using a uniform naming system allows scientists from all over the world to recognize exactly which life form a scientist is referring to. The naming process is called the binomial system of nomenclature. Passer is comparable to a surname and is called the genus, while domesticus is the specific or species name (like your given name) of the English sparrow. Now scientists can give all sparrow-like birds the genus Passer but the species name will vary. All similar genera (plural for genus) can be grouped into another, “higher” category (see below). Study the following for a more through understanding of taxonomy. Taxonomy Analogy Kingdom: Animalia Country
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: Critical aspects of the basic procedures of micropropagation, regeneration, and somatic embryogenesis are covered in a well-balanced collection of easy-to-follow protocols presented in three separate, but complimentary, volumes.
Abstract: The origin of plant cell and tissue culture can be found in a treatise published during the mid-18th century, entitled La Physique des Arbes, that describes the formation of callus tissue following the for mation of a ring of cortex from elm trees. Over the next two centuries, the discovery of plant growth hormones, in particular auxins and cytokinins, and detailed analyses on the nutritional requirements of plants, led to the formulation of media that could maintain actively dividing cultures derived from gymnosperms, and both dicotyledon ous and monocotyledonous angiosperms. However, much of the prog ress and technological development in the in vitro propagation of plant cells, tissues, and organs has occurred during the last 25 years. Recently, plant tissue culture techniques have been used as basic tools in the rapidly expanding field of plant biotechnology for the development and clonal propagation of new and/or improved plant varieties. Plant tissue culture is used for the micropropagation of commercially valuable cultivars that include ornamentals, oil palm, Glycyrrhiza, Pyrethrum, pine, Eucalyptus, sugar cane, and potatoes. Cultured plant tissue is also used for the selection of cells and, ul timately, the regeneration of plants that are tolerant to physical stresses such as pathogens, drought, and temperature extremes, and to chemical stress agents such as salinity, herbicides, proteins, and pyrethrins. In addition, new plants have been produced by the fusion of protoplasts prepared from cultured cells of different species in cluding sunflower and french bean, tomato and potato, and various cultivars of Datura. Finally, bacterial vectors and various mechanical methods have been used to introduce foreign genes into cultured plant tissues. Genetic transformation can result in profound changes in the phenotype and/or biochemical profile of the regenerated trans genic plants that are not characteristic of the wild type. An impressive variety of technologies in tissue culture, genetic manipulation, and molecular biology have been developed for nu merous plant species. Many of these techniques, sometimes referred to as plant biotechnology, have been extensively summarized and compiled in a well-balanced collection of easy-to-follow protocols presented in three separate, but complimentary, volumes. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture consists of 22 chapters (with 86 figures) and 5 appendices. The chapters cover critical aspects of (a) the es sential requirements for the operation of a plant tissue culture lab oratory; (b) the basic procedures of micropropagation, regeneration, and somatic embryogenesis; (c) some specific applications of organ culture systems such as embryo rescue and culture, and anther and microspore culture for haploid and double haploid production; (d) elementary transformation technology; and (e) useful microtechnique and analytical protocols specifically adapted to cultured tissues and cells. The appendices provide a convenient summary of media for mulations and commercial suppliers for the materials described in the text.
07 Mar 2013
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art advances of AgNPs in the synthesis methods, medical applications and biosafety, and a new type of Ag particles, silver Ångstrom (Å, 1 Å = 0.1 nm) particles (AgÅPs), which exhibit better biological activity and lower toxicity compared with AgNps are reviewed.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been one of the most attractive nanomaterials in biomedicine due to their unique physicochemical properties. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art advances of AgNPs in the synthesis methods, medical applications and biosafety of AgNPs. The synthesis methods of AgNPs include physical, chemical and biological routes. AgNPs are mainly used for antimicrobial and anticancer therapy, and also applied in the promotion of wound repair and bone healing, or as the vaccine adjuvant, anti-diabetic agent and biosensors. This review also summarizes the biological action mechanisms of AgNPs, which mainly involve the release of silver ions (Ag+), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), destruction of membrane structure. Despite these therapeutic benefits, their biological safety problems such as potential toxicity on cells, tissue, and organs should be paid enough attention. Besides, we briefly introduce a new type of Ag particles smaller than AgNPs, silver Angstrom (A, 1 A = 0.1 nm) particles (AgAPs), which exhibit better biological activity and lower toxicity compared with AgNPs. Finally, we conclude the current challenges and point out the future development direction of AgNPs.