Other affiliations: The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Government Degree College ...read more
Bio: Muhammad Akram is an academic researcher from International Islamic University, Islamabad. The author has contributed to research in topics: Materials science & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 43, co-authored 393 publications receiving 7329 citations. Previous affiliations of Muhammad Akram include The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Pakistan & University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of Breast cancer, stages of breastcancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.
Abstract: Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.
TL;DR: The purpose of this review is to inform the researcher of the hazardous nature of MPTP and to provide guidance for its safe handling and use.
TL;DR: The introduction, regulation and energetics of TCA cycle have been discussed and the present study was carried out to review literature on T CA cycle.
Abstract: The citric acid cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. It is the most important metabolic pathway for the energy supply to the body. TCA is the most important central pathway connecting almost all the individual metabolic pathways. In this review article, introduction, regulation and energetics of TCA cycle have been discussed. The present study was carried out to review literature on TCA cycle.
TL;DR: This review looks at the progress being made to extract Hydroxyapatite and its precursors containing trace amount of beneficial ions from biological resources like animal bones, eggshells, wood, algae, etc.
Abstract: Healing of segmental bone defects remain a difficult problem in orthopedic and trauma surgery. One reason for this difficulty is the limited availability of bone material to fill the defect and promote bone growth. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a synthetic biomaterial, which is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals and, therefore, it can be used as a filler to replace damaged bone or as a coating on implants to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implants when used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial applications. HA is a stoichiometric material with a chemical composition of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, while a mineral component of bone is a non-stoichiometric HA with trace amounts of ions such as Na+, Zn2+, Mg2+, K+, Si2+, Ba2+, F−, CO32−, etc. This review looks at the progress being made to extract HA and its precursors containing trace amount of beneficial ions from biological resources like animal bones, eggshells, wood, algae, etc. Properties, such as particle size, morphology, stoichiometry, thermal stability, and the presence of trace ions are studied with respect to the starting material and recovery method used. This review also highlights the importance of extracting HA from natural resources and gives future directions to the researcher so that HA extracted from biological resources can be used clinically as a valuable biomaterial.
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: Turmeric helps to prevent atherosclerosis by reducing the formation of bloods clumps and exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play an important role in inflammation.
Abstract: Turmeric is a spice derived from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). Rhizomes are horizontal underground stems that send out shoots as well as roots. The bright yellow color of turmeric comes mainly from fat-soluble, polyphenolic pigments known as curcuminoids. Curcumin, the principal curcuminoid found in turmeric, is generally considered its most active constituent. Other curcuminoids found in turmeric include demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. In addition to its use as a spice and pigment, turmeric has been used in India for medicinal purposes for centuries. More recently, evidence that curcumin may have anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities has renewed scientific interest in its potential to prevent and treat the disease. Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The other two curcuminoids are desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin. The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in at least two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The enol form is more energetically stable in the solid phase and in solution . Curcumin can be used for boron quantification in the so-called curcumin method. It reacts with boric acid forming a red colored compound, known as rosocyanine. Curcumin is brightly yellow colored and may be used as a food coloring. As a food additive, its E number is E100. Properties of Curcumin. Curcumin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal actions. Studies have shown that curcumin is not toxic to humans. Curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play an important role in inflammation. Turmeric is effective in reducing post-surgical inflammation. Turmeric helps to prevent atherosclerosis by reducing the formation of bloods clumps. Curcumin inhibits the
10 Mar 1970
TL;DR: A theme of the text is the use of artificial regressions for estimation, reference, and specification testing of nonlinear models, including diagnostic tests for parameter constancy, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, and other types of mis-specification.
Abstract: Offering a unifying theoretical perspective not readily available in any other text, this innovative guide to econometrics uses simple geometrical arguments to develop students' intuitive understanding of basic and advanced topics, emphasizing throughout the practical applications of modern theory and nonlinear techniques of estimation. One theme of the text is the use of artificial regressions for estimation, reference, and specification testing of nonlinear models, including diagnostic tests for parameter constancy, serial correlation, heteroscedasticity, and other types of mis-specification. Explaining how estimates can be obtained and tests can be carried out, the authors go beyond a mere algebraic description to one that can be easily translated into the commands of a standard econometric software package. Covering an unprecedented range of problems with a consistent emphasis on those that arise in applied work, this accessible and coherent guide to the most vital topics in econometrics today is indispensable for advanced students of econometrics and students of statistics interested in regression and related topics. It will also suit practising econometricians who want to update their skills. Flexibly designed to accommodate a variety of course levels, it offers both complete coverage of the basic material and separate chapters on areas of specialized interest.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a unified and comprehensive theory of structural time series models, including a detailed treatment of the Kalman filter for modeling economic and social time series, and address the special problems which the treatment of such series poses.
Abstract: In this book, Andrew Harvey sets out to provide a unified and comprehensive theory of structural time series models. Unlike the traditional ARIMA models, structural time series models consist explicitly of unobserved components, such as trends and seasonals, which have a direct interpretation. As a result the model selection methodology associated with structural models is much closer to econometric methodology. The link with econometrics is made even closer by the natural way in which the models can be extended to include explanatory variables and to cope with multivariate time series. From the technical point of view, state space models and the Kalman filter play a key role in the statistical treatment of structural time series models. The book includes a detailed treatment of the Kalman filter. This technique was originally developed in control engineering, but is becoming increasingly important in fields such as economics and operations research. This book is concerned primarily with modelling economic and social time series, and with addressing the special problems which the treatment of such series poses. The properties of the models and the methodological techniques used to select them are illustrated with various applications. These range from the modellling of trends and cycles in US macroeconomic time series to to an evaluation of the effects of seat belt legislation in the UK.
TL;DR: This volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of the instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented.
Abstract: I read this book the same weekend that the Packers took on the Rams, and the experience of the latter event, obviously, colored my judgment. Although I abhor anything that smacks of being a handbook (like, \"How to Earn a Merit Badge in Neurosurgery\") because too many volumes in biomedical science already evince a boyscout-like approach, I must confess that parts of this volume are fast, scholarly, and significant, with certain reservations. I like parts of this well-illustrated book because Dr. Sj6strand, without so stating, develops certain subjects on technique in relation to the acquisition of judgment and sophistication. And this is important! So, given that the author (like all of us) is somewhat deficient in some areas, and biased in others, the book is still valuable if the uninitiated reader swallows it in a general fashion, realizing full well that what will be required from the reader is a modulation to fit his vision, propreception, adaptation and response, and the kind of problem he is undertaking. A major deficiency of this book is revealed by comparison of its use of physics and of chemistry to provide understanding and background for the application of high resolution electron microscopy to problems in biology. Since the volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of The instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented. The potential use of chemical or cytochemical information as it relates to biological fine structure , however, is quite deficient. I wonder when even sophisticated morphol-ogists will consider fixation a reaction and not a technique; only then will the fundamentals become self-evident and predictable and this sine qua flon will become less mystical. Staining reactions (the most inadequate chapter) ought to be something more than a technique to selectively enhance contrast of morphological elements; it ought to give the structural addresses of some of the chemical residents of cell components. Is it pertinent that auto-radiography gets singled out for more complete coverage than other significant aspects of cytochemistry by a high resolution microscopist, when it has a built-in minimal error of 1,000 A in standard practice? I don't mean to blind-side (in strict football terminology) Dr. Sj6strand's efforts for what is \"routinely used in our laboratory\"; what is done is usually well done. It's just that …