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Muhammad Imran

Bio: Muhammad Imran is an academic researcher from Government College University, Faisalabad. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Materials science. The author has an hindex of 94, co-authored 3053 publications receiving 51728 citations. Previous affiliations of Muhammad Imran include Utrecht University & University of Surrey.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most important addenda of the proposed E3F are a sophisticated power model for various base station types, as well as large-scale long-term traffic models, which are applied to quantify the energy efficiency of the downlink of a 3GPP LTE radio access network.
Abstract: In order to quantify the energy efficiency of a wireless network, the power consumption of the entire system needs to be captured. In this article, the necessary extensions with respect to existing performance evaluation frameworks are discussed. The most important addenda of the proposed energy efficiency evaluation framework (E3F) are a sophisticated power model for various base station types, as well as large-scale long-term traffic models. The BS power model maps the RF output power radiated at the antenna elements to the total supply power of a BS site. The proposed traffic model emulates the spatial distribution of the traffic demands over large geographical regions, including urban and rural areas, as well as temporal variations between peak and off-peak hours. Finally, the E3F is applied to quantify the energy efficiency of the downlink of a 3GPP LTE radio access network.

1,462 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The linkage of a 100% bio-originated material and nanomaterials opens new windows for becoming independent, primarily, of petrochemical-based polymers and, secondarily, for answering environmental and health concerns will undoubtedly be growing with time.
Abstract: Environmental, economic, and safety challenges have provoked packaging scientists and producers to partially substitute petrochemical-based polymers with biodegradable ones. The general purpose of this review is to introduce poly-lactic acid (PLA), a compostable, biodegradable thermoplastic made from renewable sources. PLA properties and modifications via different methods, like using modifiers, blending, copolymerizing, and physical treatments, are mentioned; these are rarely discussed together in other reviews. Industrial processing methods for producing different PLA films, wrappings, laminates, containers (bottles and cups), are presented. The capabilities of PLA for being a strong active packaging material in different areas requiring antimicrobial and antioxidant characteristics are discussed. Consequently, applications of nanomaterials in combination with PLA structures for creating new PLA nanocomposites with greater abilities are also covered. These approaches may modify PLA weaknesses for some food packaging applications. Nanotechnology approaches are being broadened in food science, especially in packaging material science with high performances and low concentrations and prices, so this category of nano-research is estimated to be revolutionary in food packaging science in the near future. The linkage of a 100% bio-originated material and nanomaterials opens new windows for becoming independent, primarily, of petrochemical-based polymers and, secondarily, for answering environmental and health concerns will undoubtedly be growing with time.

1,165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections.
Abstract: Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living). Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.

879 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Dec 2012-Sensors
TL;DR: This paper provides a comprehensive overview of NILM system and its associated methods and techniques used for disaggregated energy sensing, review the state-of-the art load signatures and disaggregation algorithms used for appliance recognition and highlight challenges and future research directions.
Abstract: Appliance Load Monitoring (ALM) is essential for energy management solutions, allowing them to obtain appliance-specific energy consumption statistics that can further be used to devise load scheduling strategies for optimal energy utilization. Fine-grained energy monitoring can be achieved by deploying smart power outlets on every device of interest; however it incurs extra hardware cost and installation complexity. Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is an attractive method for energy disaggregation, as it can discern devices from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of measurement. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of NILM system and its associated methods and techniques used for disaggregated energy sensing. We review the state-of-the art load signatures and disaggregation algorithms used for appliance recognition and highlight challenges and future research directions.

850 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an updated survey of the field of halide perovskite nanocomposite colloidal synthesis, with a main focus on their colloidal synthetic routes to control shape, size and optical properties of the resulting nano-crystals.
Abstract: Metal halide perovskites represent a flourishing area of research, driven by both their potential application in photo-voltaics and optoelectronics, and for the fundamental science underpinning their unique optoelectronic properties. The advent of colloidal methods for the synthesis of halide perovskite nanocrystals has brought to the attention inter-esting aspects of this new type of materials, above all their defect-tolerance. This review aims to provide an updated survey of this fast-moving field, with a main focus on their colloidal synthesis. We examine the chemistry and the ca-pability of different colloidal synthetic routes to control the shape, size and optical properties of the resulting nano-crystals. We also provide an up to date overview of their post-synthesis transformations, and summarize the various so-lution processes aimed at fabricating halide perovskite-based nanocomposites. We then review the fundamental optical properties of halide perovskite nanocrystals, by focusing on their linear optical properties, on the effects of quantum confinement and, then, on the current knowledge of their exciton binding energies. We also discuss the emergence of non-linear phenomena such as multiphoton absorption, biexcitons and carrier multiplication. At last, we provide an outlook in the field, with the most cogent open questions and possible future directions.

836 citations


Cited by
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[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.

29,323 citations

28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The using multivariate statistics is universally compatible with any devices to read, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of the authors' books like this one.
Abstract: Thank you for downloading using multivariate statistics. As you may know, people have look hundreds times for their favorite novels like this using multivariate statistics, but end up in infectious downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon, instead they juggled with some harmful bugs inside their laptop. using multivariate statistics is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our books collection saves in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Merely said, the using multivariate statistics is universally compatible with any devices to read.

14,604 citations