Muhammad Mohsin Javed
Other affiliations: Virtual University of Pakistan
Bio: Muhammad Mohsin Javed is an academic researcher from Government College University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Trichoderma viride & Fermentation. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 42 publications receiving 445 citations. Previous affiliations of Muhammad Mohsin Javed include Virtual University of Pakistan.
TL;DR: Wheat bran has immense applications and market value which makes it so important to be considered as brown gold, and its importance from medical view point is well documented.
Abstract: Wheat bran, a by-product of wheat milling industry, is the outermost covering of wheat grain. It has relatively diverse application in food, feed, medicine and fermentation industries due to its richness in carbohydrates (mostly fibers), protein and fats which makes it an important dietary element. Its importance from medical view point is well documented especially in reducing blood plasma cholesterol and prevention of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, that is, colon cancer. In fermentation industry, wheat bran can be used as a substrate for production of a range of products such as biomass, enzyme, biofuel and production of other metabolites. In short wheat bran has immense applications and market value which makes it so important to be considered as brown gold. Key words: Wheat bran, enzyme production, biofuel, food, health.
TL;DR: Smoking, pesticide exposure, diesel exhaust and meat consumption are main lung cancer determinants in Pakistan and consuming vegetables, fruits, milk and juices can reduce the risk of lung cancer risk, as in other countries.
Abstract: Background: Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world and both incidence and mortality rates are continuing to rise in Pakistan. However, epidemiological studies to identify common lung cancer determinants in the Pakistani population have been limited. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, 400 cases and 800 controls were enrolled from different hospitals of all provinces of Pakistan. Information about socio-demographic, occupational, lifestyle and dietary variables was extracted by questionnaire from all subjects. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. and dose-response associations were also assessed for suitable factors. Results: Strong associations were observed for smoking (OR=9.4, 95%CI=6.9-12.8), pesticide exposure (OR=5.1, 95%CI=3.1-8.3), exposure to diesel exhaust (OR=3.1, 95%CI=2.1-4.5), red meat consumption (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.8-4.7) and chicken consumption (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.7-49). Other associated factors observed were welding fumes (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.0-6.5), sedentary living (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.6-2.6), family history (OR=2.0, 95%CI=0.8-4.9), wood dust (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.23.1), tea consumption (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.6), coffee consumption (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.1-2.8), alcoholism (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1-2.5) and asbestos exposure(OR=1.5, 95%CI=0.5-4.4). Consumption of vegetables (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.2-0.4), juices (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.3-0.4), fruits (OR=0.7, 95%CI=0.5-0.9) and milk (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.50.8) showed reduction in risk of lung cancer. Strongest dose-response relationships were observed for smoking
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the production of cellulolytic enzymes (CMC-ase, FP-ase and β-glucosidase) and hemicellulolytic enzyme (xylanase) along with total extracellular protein by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride using submerged fermentation.
Abstract: The present work describes the production of cellulolytic enzymes (CMC-ase, FP-ase, β-glucosidase) and hemicellulolytic enzyme (xylanase) along with total extracellular protein by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma viride using submerged fermentation. Among seven different kinds of experiments, secretion rate of protein and enzymes was investigated by mono- and co-cultures of A. niger and T. viride using wheat bran as substrate with the supply of Eggins and Pugh salt medium. Co-culture of A. niger and T. viride (when both were mixed together simultaneously) gave 30-50% higher production of total protein (0.58 mg/ml) and enzymes; CMC-ase (2.79 U/ml/min), FP-ase (1.75 U/ml/min) and xylanase (189.7 U/ml/min) than mono-cultures and all other combinations. Biosynthesis of β-glucosidase was found higher i.e., 4.66 U/ml/min in co-culture of A. niger and T. viride (when T. viride was mixed with 24 hours old culture of A. niger ). Simultaneous co-culture of A. niger and T. viride was further optimized with fermentation rate, different carbon sources, incubation temperature and different pH of fermentation media. Key words: Strain compatibility, co-culture, mono-culture, fermentation.
01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: The cellulases obtained from compatible mixed cultures i.e., simultaneous mixing of both fungi have 59-66% more cotton saccharifying activity as compared to their pure cultures and other combinations.
Abstract: Five different co-culture combinations (1:1 ratio, 2.75×10 conidia) of Aspergillus niger MSK-7 (A) 7 and Trichoderma viride MSK-10 (T) i.e., mixing of A and T, mixing of T in 24 and 48 h old monocultures of A, similar mixing of A in 24 and 48 h old monocultures of T and the monocultures of both were evaluated for their potential performance of cellulases production in terms of cotton saccharifying activity. The results of present study showed that the cellulases obtained from compatible mixed cultures i.e., simultaneous mixing of both fungi have 59-66% more cotton saccharifying activity as compared to their pure cultures and other combinations. The fermentation experiments were performed in shake flasks using wheat bran as substrate with E & P as basal nutrition medium. Incubation time (24-168 h), carbon sources with different concentrations and initial pH of fermentation medium was optimized with simultaneous mixed cultures. It was revealed that the cellulose powder (1.0%) at pH 5.5 was the best source of carbon for the enhanced production of cellulases in the compatible mixed culture experiments after 72 h of incubation with 1451 U/h/L.
TL;DR: In ESBL producing bacteria, high prevalence of antibacterial resistance of non-β-lactam antibiotics is a serious matter of concern and monitoring of ESBL production and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary to avoid treatment failure in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI).
Abstract: Emerging antibiotic resistance due to extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production limited the use of β-lactam antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. This observational study was conducted at the Microbiology department of the Children’s Hospital, Lahore Pakistan, from June, 2009 to November, 2010 to determine the frequency and antimicrobial resistance of ESBL producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae. A total of 13638 urine samples were processed for culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. E. coli and K. pneumoniae were identified using API 20E. A double disk synergy test (DDST) was performed to determine ESBL production. ESBL production was detected in 312 (57.4%) E. col i and 386 (71.7%) K. pneumoniae . A multidrug resistance pattern was seen in ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae . ESBL producing E. coli showed maximum resistance to cefotaxime (100%), ceftazidime (99.4%) and cefuroxime (93.3%) while minimum resistance was seen with meropenem (1.3%), piperacillin/tazobactam (10.3%) and nitrofurantoin (27.6%). ESBL producing K. pneumoniae showed maximum resistance to ceftazidime (100%), cefotaxime (98.7%) and cefuroxime (98.1%) while minimum resistance was seen with meropenem (3.6%), piperacillin/tazobactam (17.6%), and nitrofurantoin (28.5%). In ESBL producing bacteria, high prevalence of antibacterial resistance of non-β-lactam antibiotics is a serious matter of concern. Monitoring of ESBL production and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary to avoid treatment failure in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). Key words : Extended spectrum, beta-lactamases, urinary tract infections, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae.
TL;DR: A comprehensive review on pesticides with respect to their types, environmental distribution, routes of exposure, and health impacts is presented to reduce the impacts of pesticides.
Abstract: Pesticides are used widely to control weeds and insect infestation in agricultural fields and various pests and disease carriers (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, rats, and mice) in houses, offices, malls, and streets. As the modes of action for pesticides are not species-specific, concerns have been raised about environmental risks associated with their exposure through various routes (e.g., residues in food and drinking water). Although such hazards range from short-term (e.g., skin and eye irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea) to chronic impacts (e.g., cancer, asthma, and diabetes), their risks are difficult to elucidate due to the involvement of various factors (e.g., period and level of exposure, type of pesticide (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the affected areas). There are no groups in the human population that are completely unexposed to pesticides while most diseases are multi-causal to add considerable complexity to public health assessments. Hence, development of eco-friendly pesticide alternatives (e.g., EcoSMART) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques is desirable to reduce the impacts of pesticides. This paper was hence organized to present a comprehensive review on pesticides with respect to their types, environmental distribution, routes of exposure, and health impacts.
TL;DR: A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity.
Abstract: Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss wheat bran extraction, its nutritional properties, potential health benefits, effects on quality and sensory properties of some cereal foods, and its application in some baked products as well as in fried cereal snacks, as an additive for oil reduction and fibre enrichment.
Abstract: Summary Production of wheat bran (WB) for human consumption is estimated to be about 90 million tonnes per year. WB is a cheap and abundant source of dietary fibre which has been linked to improved bowel health and possible prevention of some diseases such as colon cancer. It also contains minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, arabinoxylans, alkylresorcinol and phytosterols. These compounds have been suggested as an aid in prevention of noncommunicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease. This article discusses WB extraction, its nutritional properties, potential health benefits, effects on quality and sensory properties of some cereal foods, and its application in some baked products as well as in fried cereal snacks, as an additive for oil reduction and fibre enrichment.
TL;DR: Of all the substrates tested, wheat bran appeared to be the best suited substrate producing appreciable yields of CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase at the levels of 310, 17 and 33 U/g dry substrate respectively.
Abstract: Various agricultural and kitchen waste residues were assessed for their ability to support the production of a complete cellulase system by Aspergillus niger NS-2 in solid state fermentation. Untreated as well as acid and base-pretreated substrates including corn cobs, carrot peelings, composite, grass, leaves, orange peelings, pineapple peelings, potato peelings, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, saw dust, wheat bran, wheat straw, simply moistened with water, were found to be well suited for the organism’s growth, producing good amounts of cellulases after 96 h without the supplementation of additional nutritional sources. Yields of cellulases were higher in alkali treated substrates as compared to acid treated and untreated substrates except in wheat bran. Of all the substrates tested, wheat bran appeared to be the best suited substrate producing appreciable yields of CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase at the levels of 310, 17 and 33 U/g dry substrate respectively. An evaluation of various environmental parameters demonstrated that appreciable levels of cellulases could be produced over a wide range of temperatures (20–50 °C) and pH levels (3.0–8.0) with a 1:1.5 to 1:1.75 substrate to moisture ratio.