TL;DR: The granule shape, amylose, pasting, retrogradation, transparency, and thermal properties of the four varieties of waxy proso millet's starches were investigated in this article .
Abstract: The granule shape, amylose, pasting, retrogradation, transparency, and thermal properties of the four varieties of waxy proso millet's starches were investigated. The starches had a substantial proportion of smooth-edged, big polygonal grains, a sparse proportion of spherical shape granules, and a combined grain size of 6.04 µm. Waxy proso millet variants' starches exhibit lower amylose level (0.24%) and greater phosphorus contents (2.32 mg/100 g) than non-waxy varieties' starches, as well as greater transparency (30.23%) and lesser volume proportions of retrogradation (4.99%); greater peak viscosities (3282 cP), thickening viscosities (2403 cP) and breakdowns (882 cP), and lesser setbacks (268 cP); and lesser onset temperatures (To) (69.65°C), peak temperatures (Tp) (74.9°C), final temperatures (Tc) (80.98°C) and enthalpies (Delta H) (11.19 J/g) in their starch gelatinization.
25 Nov 2021
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present UAV classification, control applications, and future directions in industry and research interest, as well as the challenges for UAVs, including battery charging, collision avoidance, and security.
Abstract: Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, have gained widespread interest in civilian and military applications, which has led to the development of novel UAVs that can perform various operations. UAVs are aircraft that can fly without the need of a human pilot onboard, meaning they can fly either autonomously or be remotely piloted. They can be equipped with multiple sensors, including cameras, inertial measurement units (IMUs), LiDAR, and GPS, to collect and transmit data in real time. Due to the demand for UAVs in various applications such as precision agriculture, search and rescue, wireless communications, and surveillance, several types of UAVs have been invented with different specifications for their size, weight, range and endurance, engine type, and configuration. Because of this variety, the design process and analysis are based on the type of UAV, with the availability of several control techniques that could be used to improve the flight of the UAV in order to avoid obstacles and potential collisions, as well as find the shortest path to save the battery life with the support of optimization techniques. However, UAVs face several challenges in order to fly smoothly, including collision avoidance, battery life, and intruders. This review paper presents UAVs’ classification, control applications, and future directions in industry and research interest. For the design process, fabrication, and analysis, various control approaches are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the challenges for UAVs, including battery charging, collision avoidance, and security, are also presented and discussed.
27 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this paper , a review of the use of UAV photogrammetry in the field of cultural heritage is presented, with a focus on state of the art trends and best practices in image acquisition technologies and 3D model-building software.
Abstract: In recent years, structure from motion (SfM) and multi-view stereo (MVS) algorithms have been successfully applied to stereo images generated by cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms to build 3D models. Indeed, the approach based on the combination of SfM-MVS and UAV-generated images allows for cost-effective acquisition, fast and automated processing, and detailed and accurate reconstruction of 3D models. As a consequence, this approach has become very popular for representation, management, and conservation in the field of cultural heritage (CH). Therefore, this review paper discusses the use of UAV photogrammetry in CH environments with a focus on state of the art trends and best practices in image acquisition technologies and 3D model-building software. In particular, this paper intends to emphasise the different techniques of image acquisition and processing in relation to the different platforms and navigation systems available, as well as to analyse and deepen the aspects of 3D reconstruction that efficiently describe the entire photogrammetric process, providing further insights for new applications in different fields, such as structural engineering and conservation and maintenance restoration of sites and structures belonging to the CH field.
07 Dec 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of the operating parameters on military and civil applications of mini UAVs has been explored, where the authors explore the impact on both the military and the civil applications.
Abstract: Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) provides cost effective solutions to a variety of applications. Hence, the flying platform is being increasingly used for a multitude of applications, both military and civil. However, the requirement of operating parameters varies between the military and civil applications. Parameters like size, range, endurance, operating altitude, maximum take-off weight (MTOW) has implications both for the deployment and employment of UAVs. This paper explores the impact of the operating parameters on military and civil applications of Mini UAV.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors reviewed the current applications of UAVs for civil and commercial purposes and investigated the challenges and communication requirements associated with UAV-based communication systems, and identified areas of future research.
Abstract: The use of drones, formally known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), has significantly increased across a variety of applications over the past few years. This is due to the rapid advancement towards the design and production of inexpensive and dependable UAVs and the growing request for the utilization of such platforms particularly in civil applications. With their intrinsic attributes such as high mobility, rapid deployment and flexible altitude, UAVs have the potential to be utilized in many wireless system applications. On the one hand, UAVs are able to operate as flying mobile terminals within wireless/cellular networks to support a variety of missions such as goods delivery, search and rescue, precision agriculture monitoring, and remote sensing. On the other hand, UAVs can be utilized as aerial base stations to increase wireless communication coverage, reliability, and the capacity of wireless systems without additional investment in wireless systems infrastructure. The aim of this article is to review the current applications of UAVs for civil and commercial purposes. The focus of this paper is on the challenges and communication requirements associated with UAV-based communication systems. This article initially classifies UAVs in terms of various parameters, some of which can impact UAVs’ communication performance. It then provides an overview of aerial networking and investigates UAVs routing protocols specifically, which are considered as one of the challenges in UAV communication. This article later investigates the use of UAV networks in a variety of civil applications and considers many challenges and communication demands of these applications. Subsequently, different types of simulation platforms are investigated from a communication and networking viewpoint. Finally, it identifies areas of future research.