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N. Jain

Bio: N. Jain is an academic researcher from Children's National Medical Center. The author has contributed to research in topics: Advanced maternal age & Gestational age. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 14 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Abstract: To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ≥35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, −0.45 ± 0.71 vs −0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r2 = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes.

17 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is limited information as to whether advanced maternal age constitutes an added stressor on the prenatal environment of the fetus, and whether or not this is secondary to impaired cardiovascular function during pregnancy.
Abstract: Delaying pregnancy, which is on the rise, may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in both women and their children. The physiological mechanisms that lead to these effects are not fully und...

43 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Jul 2017-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Results indicate that synthetic PIF protects against LPS induced fetal loss, likely through modulation of inflammatory response especially the inflammasome complex, and therapeutic approach during pregnancy can be envisioned.
Abstract: Maternal control of inflammation is essential during pregnancy and an exaggerated response is one of the underlying causes of fetal loss. Inflammatory response is mediated by multiple factors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central. Activation of TLRs results in NALP-3 mediated assembly of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 into the inflammasome and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Given that preventing measures are lacking, we investigated PreImplantation Factor (PIF) as therapeutic option as PIF modulates Inflammation in pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic PIF (PIF analog) protects against multiple immune disorders. We used a LPS induced murine model of fetal loss and synthetic PIF reduced this fetal loss and increased the embryo weight significantly. We detected increased PIF expression in the placentae after LPS insult. The LPS induced serum and placenta cytokines were abolished by synthetic PIF treatment and importantly synthetic PIF modulated key members of inflammasome complex NALP-3, ASC, and caspase-1 as well. In conclusion our results indicate that synthetic PIF protects against LPS induced fetal loss, likely through modulation of inflammatory response especially the inflammasome complex. Given that synthetic PIF is currently tested in autoimmune diseases of non-pregnant subjects (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02239562), therapeutic approach during pregnancy can be envisioned.

34 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although there was no difference in placental weight and cord size, velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord increases in IVF pregnancy and needs careful observation during the delivery process.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the sizes of the placenta and umbilical cord in women with natural pregnancy versus those undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Overall, 1610 cases of uncomplicated single pregnancies with vaginal delivery at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups: natural pregnancy group (n = 1453) and IVF pregnancy not including intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment (n = 157). The groups were compared in terms of gestational week, maternal age, parity, maternal weight gain, prepregnancy maternal BMI, infant weight at birth, infant head circumference, placental weight, cross section of the placenta, cross section of the umbilical cord, insertion site of the umbilical cord, and umbilical cord length. Stepwise selection and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis to correct the result as an independent factor. There was no difference in the size of the placenta and umbilical cord between women with natural pregnancy and with IVF, but the incidence of velamentous insertion of the cord was significantly increased in women with IVF pregnancy (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08–2.72, p = 0.026). Although there is no difference in placental weight and cord size, velamentous insertion of the umbilical cord increases in IVF pregnancy and needs careful observation during the delivery process.

19 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim was to study the outcome of labor in nulliparous women ≥40 years, compared with women 25‐29 years, after both spontaneous onset and induction of labor.
Abstract: The number of women postponing childbirth until an advanced age is increasing. Our aim was to study the outcome of labor in nulliparous women ≥40 years, compared with women 25-29 years, both after spontaneous onset and induction of labor.The nationwide population-based Swedish Medical Birth Register was used to study the perinatal outcome in nulliparous women with a singleton, term (gestational week 37-44), live fetus in cephalic presentation and a planned vaginal delivery from 1992 to 2011. We included 7796 nulliparous women ≥40 years and 264 262 nulliparous women 25-29 years. Prevalence and risk of intrapartum cesarean section, operative vaginal delivery, obstetric anal sphincter injury, and 5-minutes Apgar score <7 were calculated for women ≥40 years stratified for spontaneous onset and induction of labor, using women 25-29 years as the reference in both strata. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Overall, 79% of women ≥40 years with a trial of labor reached a vaginal delivery. After spontaneous onset, intrapartum cesarean section was performed in 15.4% of women ≥40 years compared with 5.4% of women 25-29 years (aOR 3.07, 95%CI 2.81 to 3.35). Operative vaginal delivery was performed in 22.3% of women ≥40 years compared with 14.2% of women 25-29 years (aOR 1.71 95%CI 1.59 to 1.85). After induction of labor, an intrapartum cesarean section was performed in 37.2% women ≥40 years compared with 20.2% women 25-29 years (aOR 2.51, 95%CI 2.24 to 2.81). Operative vaginal delivery was performed in 22.6% of women ≥40 years compared with 18.4% women 25-29 years (aOR 1.45, 95%CI 1.28 to 1.65). The risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury or 5-minutes Apgar score <7 was not increased in women ≥40 years, regardless of onset of labor.Trial of labor ended in vaginal delivery in 79% of nulliparous women ≥40 years. The risks of intrapartum cesarean section and operative vaginal delivery were higher in women ≥40 years compared with women 25-29 years, both after spontaneous onset and induction of labor. The risk of obstetric anal sphincter injury or 5-minutes Apgar score <7 was not increased. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2019-Medicine
TL;DR: Advanced maternal age was not associated with major morbidities and long-term NDI among VLBW preterm infants, and differences in NDI and composite adverse outcomes were not statistically significant between the groups after adjustments for potential confounders.

10 citations