N. T. Nurulla-Khodjaeva
Bio: N. T. Nurulla-Khodjaeva is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: History of China. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 1 citations.
Topics: History of China
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the political and cultural heritage of Sogdians (merchants outside empires) and present them as a people who managed to influence the Eurasian cultural dynamics by introducing the principle of deterritorialization into relations with close and far neighbors.
Abstract: The article is devoted to political and cultural heritage of Sogdians (“merchants outside empires”). This is the Central Asian people, who lived in a period from around the 6th century BC. until the middle of the Middle Ages, and then were dispersed in the vastness of Khorasan region. Throughout its history the Sogdians played the role of the most important trade intermediaries on some segments of the Silk Road, many researchers today consider “Silk Road” and “Sogdian Trade Network” as synonyms notions. Sogdians were unique in their inclination not only to develop new products, but also to proliferate their own reinterpretation of new, mostly imported ideas. This is especially evident in their relations with the Chinese, including the period of the Tang dynasty (618-907), i.e., “Golden age” in the history of China. The article for the first time in Russian research literature represents Sogdians as a people who managed to influence the Eurasian cultural dynamics by introducing the principle of deterritorialization into relations with close and far neighbors. Most modern historians in Central Asia tend to ignore the contribution to “their” history from “strangers”, neither mediators, nor neighbors. The appeal to the intellectual heritage of Sogdians as a people who promoted the transformation of the region into a crossroads of cultures would open the possibility of developing intellectual pluralism in each of the Central Asian countries today and would allow accelerating the creative modernization of the region as a whole.
TL;DR: In this article, a Korean abstract is presented, where the authors discuss the effect of different types of content on the quality of the content and the content of the video content, such as the following:
Abstract: Korean Abstract: 최근 몇 년간 유럽과 아시아를 하나의 경제권으로 통합하고자 하는 강대국간 경쟁과 각축이 치열하게 전개되어 왔다. 특히 각자의 유라시아 실크로드 구상을 통해 지정학적 우위를 점하기 위한 노력과 함께 그들간 이해관계에 따른 합종연횡이 이루어지고 있는 등 유라시아 지각이 요동치고 있다.유라시아의 주도권을 둘러싼 강대국간 경쟁과 각축은 주로 대륙을 관통하는 국제운송회랑을 매개로 진행되고 있다. 국제운송회랑은 단지 화물과 여객을 수송하는 교통로의 그물망 구조가 아니라 공간을 지배하고 세력권을 확대하려는 ‘국제정치경제의 횡단선’으로, 현재 유라시아 공간은 국제운송회랑을 둘러싼 강대국의 각축장이 된 지 오래이다. 특히 운송로의 국제적 연계에 따라 발생할 수 있는 지정학적·지경학적 위상 변화에 기초한 각국의 독자적 대응과 접근이 이루어진다는 점에서 유라시아 실크로드는 국가간 경쟁과 협력이 교차할 수밖에 없는 복잡한 지정학적 ‘게임의 공간’임에 주목할 필요가 있다. 특히 유라시아 실크로드를 둘러싸고 전개되는 있는 중, 러, 미 강대국간 각축과 경쟁구도는 태평양과 유라시아 대륙이 교차하는 반도에 위치하여 해양세력과 대륙세력 간 판도와 그 변화에 민감한 우리에게 매우 중요한 의미를 던져주고 있다.본 연구의 목적은 최근 유라시아 실크로드 구축을 둘러싸고 진행되는 지정학적·지경학적 변화에 착목하여 새로운 협력공간의 기회를 적극 창출하고, 동시에 이를 통해 한반도 평화통일에 이바지할 수 있는 방안을 모색하는 데 있다. 특히 초지역 강대국(trans-regional great power)에서 글로벌 강대국(global super power)으로 성장하고 있는 중국의 ‘일대일로’로 촉발되고 있는 유라시아의 복잡한 강대국간 ‘신거대게임(a New Great Game)’에 주목하여 유라시아 실크로드 공동구축을 위한 해법을 마련하고자 한다. 최근 중국, 러시아, 미국 등의 유라시아 전략이 이미 구상단계를 넘어 국제운송회랑을 중심으로 하는 복합적 프로젝트로서 가동되고 있는 상황에도 불구하고, ‘유라시아 이니셔티브’는 여전히 구상 단계에 머물러 있다. 물론 2014년 말에 ‘유라시아 이니셔티브’ 로드맵이 만들어지기는 했지만, 구체적 실행방안이 결여된 상태에서 아직까지 나진-하산 프로젝트를 제외하고는 제대로 된 사업진척이 이루어지고 있지 않다.(후략)English Abstract: Recently there has been developed intense competition between great powers, which are willing to integrate Europe and Asia into a single economic block. The world powers are entering into the era of division and congregation depending on their interests with intense efforts made to dominate geopolitical superiority. This looks like the Eurasian plate is fluctuating. The intense struggle for the hegemony in Eurasia between great powers is mainly being carried by international transport corridors passing through the continents. International transport corridor is not just network of routes to transport cargo and passengers, but a transversal line of international political economy, in which great powers are making efforts to dominate and extend their influence.Eurasia has been the arena of competition on international transport corridors between great powers for a long time. Due to the fact that Eurasian Silk Road is the connection between transportation route, independent actions and approaches of each countries are taking places. Therefore, we need to focus on the fact that the Eurasian Silk Road is a complicated ‘space of game’, in which competitions and cooperation between countries are being made. Particularly, the giant stampede on Eurasia silk road between US, China, and Russia is giving Korea great significance, since Korea is the peninsula, located in the intersection of the Pacific and the Eurasian Continent and is sensitive to hegemonic changes of the ocean and the continent.The purpose of this study is to create new opportunities for the new cooperation space, and simultaneously to seek the ways of peaceful reunifications of two Koreas through it, based on the analysis of the geopolitical and geo-economical changes building Eurasia Silk Road. Focusing on the intricate ‘New Great Game’ between the global super powers in Eurasia, especially triggered by ‘One belt-One Road’ plan of China, which is transforming from trans-regional great power into global super power, we are going to seek the way of building Eurasian Silk Road together.Recently complex strategical project on Eurasia among China, Russia, and US has been activated already. However, Korea’s ‘Eurasia initiative’ is still remaining in the stage of planning. Even though the road map of ‘Eurasia Initiative’ was set up in the end of 2014, it has not detailed realization plan, so any progress is not being made except the ‘Rajiin-Khasan Project’.
TL;DR: In the context of change and complex life, challenges are most efficiently dealt with, at the source, "locally" to make "the global" more sustainable as discussed by the authors , and the concept of resilience as self-governance is advanced as an overriding framework to explore its constitutive elements, which, when mobilised, can turn community into "peoplehood" in the face of adversity.
Abstract: Abstract This introduction to the Special Issue problematises the necessity to rethink governance through the lens of resilience and suggests a novel conceptualisation of resilience. Building the argument on complexity-thinking, this issue contends that in the context of change and complex life, challenges are most efficiently dealt with, at the source, ‘locally’, to make ‘the global’ more sustainable. Accordingly, the concept of resilience as self-governance is advanced in the introduction as an overriding framework to explore its constitutive elements—identity, ‘good life’, local coping strategies and support infrastructures—which, when mobilised, can turn community into ‘peoplehood’ in the face of adversity. This conceptualisation, we argue, explains what makes communities adapt and transform, and how they should be governed today. Central Eurasia, spanning from Belarus in the west, to Azerbaijan in the south and Tajikistan in the east, provides fertile grounds for exploring how resilience works in practice in times of complex change. By immersing into centuries-long traditions and philosophy, local experiences of survival, and visions for change, this introduction—along with the Special Issue—shows that governability at any level requires a substantive ‘local’ input to make ‘the global’ more enduring and resilient in a complex adaptive world.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyze trade relations along the territory of contact between China and the Turkic Qaghanate in the VI-VIII centuries and to identify the economic significance of the Turkish-Chinese frontier for international trade relations in the Central Asian region.
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of trade relations between the Turkic Qaghanates and China in the VI—VIII centuries. At that time, the zone of contact between steppe Mongolia and the northern Chinese borders became a place of active trade exchange, in which nomads, Chinese, and Sogdians participated. The purpose of the article is to analyze trade relations along the territory of contact between China and the Turkic Qaghanate in the VI—VIII centuries and to identify the economic significance of the Turkic-Chinese frontier for international trade relations in the Central Asian region. As a result of the analysis, it was shown that the strengthening of the influence of the Turks and China in Central Asia contributed to the establishment of stable trade along the Silk Road. Based on the analysis of Chinese sources, it was revealed that Chinese silk and Turkic horses have become the main goods involved in the exchange in the frontier zone. As a result, the authors conclude that trade along the frontier zone stimulated the entire system of trade relations in Central Asia. China’s need for nomadic horses led to huge shipments of silk fabrics to the steppe. The Turkic qaghans sold the accumulated silk to the Sogdians, who distributed it in the markets of the Central Asian region, sent it to Iran and Byzantium. Thus, due to trade, a symbiosis of China and the steppe region was created, international contacts intensified.