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Nadine Desrochers

Bio: Nadine Desrochers is an academic researcher from Université de Montréal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Paratext & Acknowledgement. The author has an hindex of 8, co-authored 24 publications receiving 339 citations. Previous affiliations of Nadine Desrochers include University of Ottawa & University of Western Ontario.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that scientific work is more highly divided in medical disciplines than in mathematics, physics, and disciplines of the social sciences, and that, with the exception of medicine, the writing of the paper is the task most often associated with authorship.
Abstract: Scientific authorship has been increasingly complemented with contributorship statements. While such statements are said to ensure more equitable credit and responsibility attribution, they also provide an opportunity to examine the roles and functions that authors play in the construction of knowledge and the relationship between these roles and authorship order. Drawing on a comprehensive and multidisciplinary dataset of 87,002 documents in which contributorship statements are found, this article examines the forms that division of labor takes across disciplines, the relationships between various types of contributions, as well as the relationships between the contribution types and various indicators of authors’ seniority. It shows that scientific work is more highly divided in medical disciplines than in mathematics, physics, and disciplines of the social sciences, and that, with the exception of medicine, the writing of the paper is the task most often associated with authorship. The results suggest ...

193 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the presence and distribution of funding acknowledgement data covered in Web of Science and found that prior to 2009 funding acknowledgements coverage is extremely low and therefore not reliable.
Abstract: Funding acknowledgements found in scientific publications have been used to study the impact of funding on research since the 1970s. However, no broad scale indexation of that paratextual element was done until 2008, when Thomson Reuters' Web of Science started to add funding acknowledgement information to its bibliographic records. As this new information provides a new dimension to bibliometric data that can be systematically exploited, it is important to understand the characteristics of these data and the underlying implications for their use. This paper analyses the presence and distribution of funding acknowledgement data covered in Web of Science. Our results show that prior to 2009 funding acknowledgements coverage is extremely low and therefore not reliable. Since 2008, funding information has been collected mainly for publications indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded; more recently (2015), inclusion of funding texts for publications indexed in the Social Science Citation Index has been implemented. Arts & Humanities Citation Index content is not indexed for funding acknowledgement data. Moreover, English-language publications are the most reliably covered. Finally, not all types of documents are equally covered for funding information indexation and only articles and reviews show consistent coverage. The characterization of the funding acknowledgement information collected by Thomson Reuters can therefore help understand the possibilities offered by the data but also their limitations.

62 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The reward system of science is undergoing significant changes, as traditional indicators compete with initiatives that offer novel means of disseminating and assessing scholarly impact. This article considers a number of aspects of this reward system, including authorship, citations, acknowledgements and the growing use of social media platforms by academics, with an eye towards identifying contemporary issues relating to scholarly communication practices, as understood through the perspectives of Bourdieu’s symbolic capital and Merton’s recognition framework. The article posits that, while scientific capital remains the foundation upon which the reward system of science is built, this system is revealing itself to be more and more multifaceted, extremely complex, and facing increasing tension between its traditional means of evaluation and the potential of new indicators in the digital era. The article presents an extended literature review, as well as recommendations for further consideration and empir...

55 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Oct 2017-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The analysis shows that technical support is more frequently acknowledged by scholars in Chemistry, Physics and Engineering, while Biology acknowledgments put more emphasis on logistics and fieldwork-related tasks, demonstrating that acknowledgment practices truly do vary across disciplines.
Abstract: For the past 50 years, acknowledgments have been studied as important paratextual traces of research practices, collaboration, and infrastructure in science. Since 2008, funding acknowledgments have been indexed by Web of Science, supporting large-scale analyses of research funding. Applying advanced linguistic methods as well as Correspondence Analysis to more than one million acknowledgments from research articles and reviews published in 2015, this paper aims to go beyond funding disclosure and study the main types of contributions found in acknowledgments on a large scale and through disciplinary comparisons. Our analysis shows that technical support is more frequently acknowledged by scholars in Chemistry, Physics and Engineering. Earth and Space, Professional Fields, and Social Sciences are more likely to acknowledge contributions from colleagues, editors, and reviewers, while Biology acknowledgments put more emphasis on logistics and fieldwork-related tasks. Conflicts of interest disclosures (or lack of thereof) are more frequently found in acknowledgments from Clinical Medicine, Health and, to a lesser extent, Psychology. These results demonstrate that acknowledgment practices truly do vary across disciplines and that this can lead to important further research beyond the sole interest in funding.

33 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The research reveals that authors rely on people as information resources as well as for moral and emotional support, and an information model, based on Robert Darnton's communication circuit, is proposed.
Abstract: Introduction. This research investigates paratextual acknowledgements in published codices in order to study how relationships inform the information-seeking habits of authors, an understudied group in library and information science. Method. A purposive sample consisting of the books from the 2010 nominations list of the Canadian Governor General's Literary Awards was chosen. An in-hand examination of the books was performed to identify the acknowledgement paratext. The sum of these paratextual parts formed the dataset. Analysis. A qualitative content analysis of the acknowledgement paratext was performed. Throughout this inductive analysis, memos were used to record the creation and refinement of categories, as well as the emerging results. Results.The research reveals that authors rely on people as information resources as well as for moral and emotional support. Sources include personal allies, communities, and publishing staff. Libraries and informational professionals are generally absent from the acknowledgement paratext. Conclusion. Authors seek and find support in their local or personal circles and in global or distant horizons. An information model, based on Robert Darnton's communication circuit, is proposed. Information practitioners may be able to build on cues from the acknowledged relationships in order to tailor services to this group of users.

15 citations


Cited by
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01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a method to improve the quality of the data collected by the data collection system. But it is difficult to implement and time consuming and computationally expensive.
Abstract: 本文对国际科学计量学杂志《Scientometrics》1979-1991年的研究论文内容、栏目、作者及国别和编委及国别作了计量分析,揭示出科学计量学研究的重点、活动的中心及发展趋势,说明了学科带头人在发展科学计量学这门新兴学科中的作用。

1,636 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2020
TL;DR: SciSci has revealed choices and trade-offs that scientists face as they advance both their own careers and the scientific horizon, and offers a deep quantitative understanding of the relational structure between scientists, institutions, and ideas, which facilitates the identification of fundamental mechanisms responsible for scientific discovery.
Abstract: The rapid development of digital libraries and the proliferation of scholarly big data have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore scientific production and reward at scale. Fueled by the data exploration and computational advances in digital libraries, the science of science is an emerging multidisciplinary field that aims to quantify patterns for scientific relationships and dependencies, and how scientific progress emerges from the scholarly big data. In this tutorial, we will provide an overview of the science of science, including major topics on scientific careers, scientific collaborations and scientific ideas. We will also discuss its historical context, the state-of-art models and exciting discoveries, and promising future directions for participants interested in mining scholarly big data.

579 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society, rev. ed. James W. Carey as mentioned in this paper is a collection of 170 essays and book reviews written by Carey, originally published in 1989.
Abstract: * Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society, rev. ed. James W Carey. New York and London: Routledge, 2009. 205 pp. James W. Carey collected essays he wrote in the 1970s and 1980s into a volume titled Communication as Culture, originally published in 1989. Carey died in May 2006 after a long and influential academic career. This re-publication as a "revised edition" comes with a bibliography of Carey's lifetime production of 170 or so essays and book reviews, compiled by his son Daniel, and an insightful forward by G. Stuart Adam, a journalism scholarship fellow at The Poynter Institute. Shortly after Communication as Culture first appeared twenty years ago, as Adam points out, American Journalism devoted an issue to scholars' commentaries on Carey's essays. In the year he died, a book of essays by scholars, titled Thinking with James Carey, examined his life's work. So perhaps there's not much left to review and learn from a new reading of the work of a prodigious intellect whose ideas have already received a thorough engagement by his academic peers. What follows, therefore, is not so much a review in the classic sense as the reflection of one who practiced newspaper and magazine journalism for twenty-five years before spending a decade in a university working at the intersection of public policy, politics, and journalism. As media companies struggle with difficult challenges posed by technological change and severe economic shocks, publishers and editors, as well as journalism critics, teachers, and students, would find no better guide to thoughtful analysis of the future than Carey's case study of the telegraph and how it transformed not simply "communication" but society itself. Indeed, Carey's central insight is profound in its simplicity: that communication is both "a structure of human action" and a "structuring set of social relations." Thus, he argues, people inhabit the culture they create by and through their communication with one another. This leads to an important lesson for professionals and would-be journalists: They cannot see themselves solely as observers somehow apart from the dynamics they report and analyze, because the act of communicating itself shapes the community in which they live and work. One of the strengths of Carey's work is that it emerged from a moral core. He drew comfortably from religious intellectual traditions and applied lessons to today's secular issues. Fundamentally, Carey sought through his thinking and writing to contribute to building a good society. A second strength, related to the first, is Carey's devotion to democracy. In this devotion, he comes across as an idealist; he recognizes the factionalism and disagreements of a continental democracy, but he tends to celebrate person-to-person conversation that creates common ground for decision making. Though no provincial American, Carey clearly had in mind the shaping of democratic conversation in the United States. Still, it is important that in developing a theoretical construct for understanding communication, he seemed to have as a goal the building of a good, democratic society. Carey's approach to the news in a democratic society led him to delve into the intellectual conflict of Walter Lippmann and John Dewey. …

490 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an all-inclusive description of the two main bibliographic DBs by gathering the findings that are presented in the most recent literature and information provided by the owners of the DBs at one place.
Abstract: Nowadays, the importance of bibliographic databases (DBs) has increased enormously, as they are the main providers of publication metadata and bibliometric indicators universally used both for research assessment practices and for performing daily tasks. Because the reliability of these tasks firstly depends on the data source, all users of the DBs should be able to choose the most suitable one. Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus are the two main bibliographic DBs. The comprehensive evaluation of the DBs’ coverage is practically impossible without extensive bibliometric analyses or literature reviews, but most DBs users do not have bibliometric competence and/or are not willing to invest additional time for such evaluations. Apart from that, the convenience of the DB’s interface, performance, provided impact indicators and additional tools may also influence the users’ choice. The main goal of this work is to provide all of the potential users with an all-inclusive description of the two main bibliographic DBs by gathering the findings that are presented in the most recent literature and information provided by the owners of the DBs at one place. This overview should aid all stakeholders employing publication and citation data in selecting the most suitable DB.

267 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Oct 2017
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper presented the landscape of the cash-per-publication reward policy in China and revealed its trend since the late 1990s, based on the analysis of 168 university documents regarding the CPP reward policy at 100 Chinese universities.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this study is to present the landscape of the cash-per-publication reward policy in China and reveal its trend since the late 1990s. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on the analysis of 168 university documents regarding the cash-per-publication reward policy at 100 Chinese universities. Findings Chinese universities offer cash rewards from 30 to 165,000 USD for papers published in journals indexed by Web of Science (WoS), and the average reward amount has been increasing for the past 10 years. Originality/value The cash-per-publication reward policy in China has never been systematically studied and investigated before except for in some case studies. This is the first paper that reveals the landscape of the cash-per-publication reward policy in China.

178 citations