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Nancy J. King

Bio: Nancy J. King is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Criminal justice & Affirmative action. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 2 publications receiving 23 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the obstacles that stand in the way of jury diversity and typically, by association, jury representativeness are reviewed, ranging from system-related problems regarding jury source lists and summonses to more psychological considerations such as the pervasive, yet difficult-to-identify impact of race on attorneys' jury selection judgments.
Abstract: One of the ideals underlying any jury system is that those groups of citizens charged with the responsibility of deciding cases should be representative of the communities from which they are selected. Anecdotal and empirical data suggest that reality often falls short of this ideal, however, as many empanelled juries are less diverse than community demographics would dictate. This article reviews the obstacles that stand in the way of jury diversity and typically, by association, jury representativeness. These range from system-related problems regarding jury source lists and summonses to more psychological considerations such as the pervasive, yet difficult-to-identify impact of race on attorneys' jury selection judgments. Drawing on psychological theory and findings, the implications of the failure to empanel diverse juries are also examined, both in terms of laypeople's attitudes toward the legal system as well as the actual decision-making performance of juries. Policy changes intended to promote diverse, representative juries are considered, as are specific directions for future research.

27 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess community justice practices such as community prosecution, community courts, sentencing circles, and citizen reparative boards and conclude that they have structural and procedural defects that should bar their use for serious crime.
Abstract: In recent years, a series of crime control practices known collectively as community justice have reintroduced rehabilitation and discretion to control certain minor crimes. This parallel system for approaching minor crime has oourished, even as the mainstream criminal system faces a crisis of legitimacy. This Article examines whether we can apply aspects of the community justice movement to improve the processing of serious crime in the mainstream criminal system. It assesses current community justice practices—community prosecution, community courts, sentencing circles, and citizen reparative boards—and ands that they have structural and procedural defects that should bar their use for serious crime. However, the chief innovation of the community justice movement—localized, popular decision-making—would alleviate many of the problems facing the criminal justice system. The Article argues that it may be possible to implement the goals of community justice while avoiding the defects of the current reform initiatives by restructuring the grand jury procedure and permitting local communities to sentence offenders.

19 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors compared the racial diversity of venires to that of panels, and both to the general population, to identify the steps in the jury-selection process that appear to be most strongly implicated in the loss of minorities.

19 citations

01 Mar 2015
TL;DR: Silence is a nonverbal pressure for this unwelcome silence to go away; silence is an anxiety that erupts in its listeners, urging an explanation as discussed by the authors, and silence is a form of isolation to elicit compliance or expose hidden motives.
Abstract: We humans are a verbal species, so verbal in fact, that the very absence of sound makes us nervous. This verbal world—so dependent on manifest explanation—makes silence one of the most effective means of communication (even though it appears to communicate nothing at all). Silence is a nonverbal pressure for this unwelcome silence to go away; silence is an anxiety that erupts in its listeners, urging an explanation. Silence is a stranger to the night watches of nonverbal meaning, requiring that silence approach—and be identified. Silence is a form of isolation to elicit compliance or expose hidden motives. Silence is a group response to that group's rejection, by not becoming witnesses against their failure to cope with rejection. Silence is a conundrum during global conflicts needing resolution, because it may either escalate or de-escalate conflict via advertent (or inadvertent) ambiguity . Silence is a lure , and rhythmic interruptions by experts in silence can use it to agitate the keepers of secrets, thus aiding interrogation. No matter what the motive, silence is an in invisible tool made of missing sound, and the language of silence is spoken by all; once silence is here, its missing explanation is too absent to ignore.

18 citations