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Nasrin Fouladi

Bio: Nasrin Fouladi is an academic researcher from Ardabil University of Medical Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Breast cancer & Medicine. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 36 publications receiving 279 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Self-efficacy can support performance of BSE while perceived barriers are important for not performing both BSE and mammography, indicating that women must educate women to increase their self- efficacy and decrease their perceived barriers.
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. All ages are susceptible and more than 90% of the patients can be cured with early diagnosis. Breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography can be useful for this aim. In this study we examined the components of the Champion health belief model to identify if they could predict the intentions of women to perform such screening. Materials and Methods: A total of 380 women aged 30 and above who had referred to health-care centers were assessed for use of breast cancer screening over the past year with a modified health belief model questionnaire. Logistic regression was applied to identify leading independent predictors. Results: In this study 27% of the women performed BSE in the last year but only 6.8% of them used mammography as a way of screening. There were significant differences regarding all components of the model except for perceived severity between women that underwent BSE. over the past year and those that did not. Findings were similar for mammography. Regression analysis revealed that intentions to perform BSE were predicted by perceived self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE while intentions to perform mammography were predicted by perceived barriers. Conclusions: This study indicated that self-efficacy can support performance of BSE while perceived barriers are important for not performing both BSE and mammography. Thus we must educate women to increase their self-efficacy and decrease their perceived barriers.

68 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The overall 5-year survival rate in Ardebil province was lower than other places of Iran and most countries in the world and needs to be improved, and results showed that breast cancer screening programs, awareness regarding early detection of breast cancer and education of health care providers are necessary.
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the major cause of cancer deaths in women 20-59 years old. The present retrospective study was undertaken to examine survival in all newly diagnosed breast cancer in Iran. One hundred and sixty-one breast cancer registered patients in 2003 were included in the study and followed up for 5-years from cancer diagnosis. Data were analyzed using life tables and Kaplan Meier for estimating relative survival rates and Cox's proportional hazard model to investigate the interaction between variables. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 45.5 (SD=12.3), ranging from 19 to 86 years. Of all patients 90 (56%) were alive and 71 (44%) were dead after five years. Using life table analysis, the overall relative 5-year survival rate was found to be 51% (SE=0.05). Using Cox regression model analysis variables such as age, surgery, location and drug therapy significantly influenced survival. According to the results, the overall 5-year survival rate in Ardebil province was lower than other places of Iran and most countries in the world and needs to be improved. Also, results showed that breast cancer screening programs, awareness regarding early detection of breast cancer and education of health care providers are necessary.

38 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: When patients become informed of their breast cancer and the necessity of undergoing mastectomy as the treatment, they probably pass through seven categories to adapt after mastectomy, and having insight about them is likely to contribute medical personnel in leading patients to the highest degree of feeling healthy.
Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Iranian women and mastectomy comprises 81% of surgeries for treatment of breast cancer. Mastectomy may create feelings such as deformation or impairment in patients, cause body-image disorder, and reduce sexuality and sexual activity which in turn may entail mental disorders. The study aimed to elaborate coping processes. Materials and Methods: A grounded theory method was used in conducting this study. Twenty Iranian participants undergoing mastectomy were recruited with purposive sampling. An open, semi-structured questionnaire were developed. Obtaining consent, conversations were recorded and immediately transcribed after each session. Data analysis was carried out with the constant comparative method using the Strauss Corbin approach. Results: Analyzing the collected data, the study came up with seven main categories which affected the coping process in patients with breast cancer, namely: reactions to mastectomy; loss and death contest; reconstruction of evaluation system; consent for undergoing mastectomy; reactions and troubles after loss; confrontation of loss and health; and reorganization and compatibility with changes. Conclusions: The results of the study indicated: when patients become informed of their breast cancer and the necessity of undergoing mastectomy as the treatment, they probably pass through seven categories to adapt after mastectomy. Having insight about them is likely to contribute medical personnel in leading patients to the highest degree of feeling healthy.

27 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An attempt was made to examine the stages that patients go through in their sexual lives after mastectomy, and sexual dysfunction has been reported in the majority of breast cancer survivors in Iran.
Abstract: Background Mastectomy is a highly frequent form of breast cancer treatment in Iran, and exual dysfunction after mastectomy has been reported in the majority of breast cancer survivors in Iran. In this qualitative study, an attempt was made to examine the stages that patients go through in their sexual lives after mastectomy. Method and materials Using purposeful sampling, 30 married women, who had undergone surgery and had completed an adjuvant treatment period, participated in the study. Data collection was done using in-depth, open and semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used. Results Two main categories were identified in the stages the patients go through following mastectomy: sexual function breakdown, and restoration of sexual function, each of which involved three subcategories, in turn. Subcategories of the first category were: perceived physical changes by the survivor and altered sexual behaviors. These two factors lead to sexual function breakdown. The third subcategory includes the factors exacerbating the sexual function breakdown. The sub-categories of the second category were modification in sexual behaviors, effort for physical restoration, and striving to gain support. Conclusion It was found that in Iranian society, due to cultural context, some taboos and patriarchal structure, the patients are placed under added pressure following mastectomy. As a consequence, they suffer emotional problems, in addition to physical complications of the disease and its treatments.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Breast cancer in Ardabil province appeared to slightly increase over the period studied, and the results were similar to other places in Asia.
Abstract: Breast cancer accounts for about 26% of all newly diagnosed cancers in women aged 20 to 59 years. As part of a basic program for cancer control, the present cross sectional descriptive study was conducted with the objective of determining the epidemiology of breast cancer in Ardabil province during 2003-2010. Necessary information on 469 recorded cases of breast cancer in the registry were collected by check list from patient’s files and then analyzed by statistical methods with SPSS.16 software. Some 455 of the patients (97%) were female, 329 (70.1%) residing in Ardabil. The mean age was 46.8±13.6 and most were in the age group of 40 - 60. The most prevalent pathologic form was infiltrative ductal carcinoma with 316 cases (67.4%), the largest proportion being grade II (30.6%), but very many belonged to grades III and IV (40.5%). Breast cancer in Ardabil province appeared to slightly increase over the period studied. The results were similar to other places in Asia. With regard to this, more widespread studies are required to determine factors influencing the prevalence at low age and also how to promote early detection.

20 citations


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Book
01 Jan 1984
TL;DR: This book includes detailed information on many of the factors surrounding injuries--the man-made systems and products involved, the groups at greatest risk, and effective ways to protect people from injuries.
Abstract: This book includes detailed information on many of the factors surrounding injuries--the man-made systems and products involved, the groups at greatest risk, and effective ways to protect people from injuries. The circumstances under which injuries occur, the etiologic agents, and the characteristics of the people involved are examined. Chapter 2 summarizes the importance of injuries in relation to other prominent health problems. Subsequent chapters describe injury mortality and, in cases where good population-based studies are available, nonfatal injuries. The analyses in Chapters 3-15 are primarily of injury deaths during 1977-1979, the most recent years for which detailed mortality data were available in mid-1983 for deaths other than those related to motor vehicles. Most of these data were collected by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Chapters 16-20 summarize data on deaths from motor vehicle-related injuries. Most of these detailed data were obtained from the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Data from the 1980 census provided denominators for the rates throughout the book, except for trendline calculations which were based on interpolations between census years. The purpose of this book is to improve understanding of the nature and magnitude of the injury problem in the United States. Although it includes some discussion of ameliorative approaches, there is no comprehensive coverage of injury research, theory, or prevention, since these have been comprehensively discussed elsewhere. This book is a thorough documentation of the injury problem. Most of the information presented is new, the product of analyses not previously published in any form.

896 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: HP infection may be associated with CHD and may act through immunoreaction or changes in lipid metabolism contributing to the pathogenesis of CHD.
Abstract: Aim \ To investigate the relation of Helicobacter pylori(HP) infection and coronary heart disease (CHD) and the effects on lipid metabolism and serum immunology.\ Methods \ HPIgG(ELISA) and IgG,IgA,IgM,C3,CIC, and total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),apolipoprotein A(ApoA),apolipoprotein B(ApoB) were measured in 90 cases of CHD,with 40 healthy subjects as controls.\ Results \ The rate of seropositive for HPIgG in CHO patients is significantly higher than that of controls(5319% vs 275%,P001). In the cases of acute myocardial infarction(AMI) and unstable angina pectoris(UAP) the rate of seropositive for HPIgG is higher than that in the cases of other types of CHD(P005). For the cases of CHD,the level of serumTG in these of HP seropositivity is higher than that of HP seronegativity(P005).The level of serum IgG and CIC in the cases are much higher than that in controls(P001). Regression analysis indicates that the HP infection is related positively to CHD(P=0047). No correlation between HP infection and other risk factors was found.\ Conclusion \ HP infection may be associated with CHD. HP infection may act through immunoreaction or changes in lipid metabolism contributing to the pathogenesis of CHD.

160 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NCR data registry of breast cancer in Iran is not accurate in monitoring the effect of screening programs or determining the current status of breastcancer in Iran, and a quality breast cancer registry and a screening program for breast cancer are both needed.

152 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Prevalence of positive celiac serology and biopsy-proven CD was significantly higher in subjects with symptoms suggestive of IBS vs. healthy controls, and the utility of screening for CD in individuals with suspected IBS in North America or in the community is less clear.

111 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Subgroup analysis revealed that survival rates varied in different World Health Organization regions, age and stage at diagnosis, year of the studies, and degree of development of countries, as well as potential sources of heterogeneity.

80 citations