Other affiliations: University of Johannesburg, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Stellenbosch University ...read more
Bio: Ndeke Musee is an academic researcher from University of Pretoria. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Hazardous waste. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 40 publications receiving 1156 citations. Previous affiliations of Ndeke Musee include University of Johannesburg & Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
TL;DR: In this review, the toxicological effects of titanium nanoparticles, zinc oxide, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and silver nanoparticles to bacteria were examined and suggest that the potential ENMs risks to bacteria are non-uniform, and are dependent on numerous factors.
Abstract: Nanotechnology is currently at the forefront of scientific research and technological developments that have resulted in the manufacture of novel consumer products and numerous industrial applications using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). With the increasing number of applications and uses of ENMs comes an increasing likelihood of nanoscale materials posing potential risks to the environment and engineered technical systems such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Recent scientific data suggests that ENMs that are useful in, for example, medical applications due to their novel physicochemical properties, may also cause adverse effects to the bacterial populations used in wastewater treatment systems. In this review, the toxicological effects of titanium nanoparticles (nTiO2), zinc oxide (nZnO), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerenes (C60) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to bacteria were examined. The results suggest that the potential ENMs risks to bacteria are non-uniform (need to be assessed case-by-case), and are dependent on numerous factors (e.g. size, pH, surface area, natural organic matter). Currently available data are therefore insufficient for evaluating the risks that ENMs pose in WWTPs. To fill these knowledge gaps, we recommend scenario specific studies aimed at improving our understanding on: (i) estimated volumes of ENMs in effluents, (ii) the antibacterial sensitivity of cultures within WWTPs towards selected ENMs, and (iii) processes improving the stability of ENMs in solutions. Two factors that merit consideration for elucidating the potential risks systematically are the toxicity mechanisms of ENMs to bacteria, and the influencing factors based on inherent physicochemical properties and environmental factors. Furthermore, the complexity of behaviour and fate of ENMs in real WWTPs requires case studies for assessing the ENMs risks to bacteria in vivo. The current laboratory results derived using simplified exposure media do not reflect actual environmental conditions.
TL;DR: This article summarizes results of the first nanowastes classification formalism in order to elucidate the potential challenges of waste streams containing nanoscale dimension materials to the present waste management paradigm and raise concerns related to the alarming increases of uncontrolled releases of NMs into the environment through nanowasts.
Abstract: Recent exponential growth in the development of nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoproducts is premised on the provision of novel benefits to the society-through the exploitation of their unique industrial and biomedical applications like medical imaging, fabrics in textiles, tissue engineering, nanocomposites, bioremediation, and biomedicine. These NMs and nanoproducts have increased in quantity and volume from few kilograms to thousands of tonnes over the last fifteen to twenty years, and their uncontrolled release into the environment is anticipated to grow dramatically in future. However, their potential impacts to the biological systems are unknown. Among the key present challenges in the waste management sector include the emergence of nanowastes; however, the effectiveness and the capability of the current systems to handle them are yet to be established. Because of limited studies on nanowastes management, in this paper, three-fold objectives are pursued, namely; (i) to raise concerns related to the alarming increases of uncontrolled releases of NMs into the environment through nanowastes, (ii) examine the unique challenges nanowastes pose to the waste management systems-both from technological and legislative perspectives, and (iii) summarize results of the first nanowastes classification formalism in order to elucidate the potential challenges of waste streams containing nanoscale dimension materials to the present waste management paradigm. Finally, the article closes by summarizing several proactive steps of enhancing effective long-term and responsible management of nanowastes.
TL;DR: The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings.
Abstract: The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings. Transparency in cosmetics needs nanotechnology, but nanotechnology in cosmetics also needs transparency...
TL;DR: The toxicity effects of silver and zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles on the duckweed Spirodela punctuta were studied to investigate the potential risks posed by these ENPs towards higher aquatic plants and suggest that the toxicity of nAg and nZnO could be caused by both the particulates and ionic forms, as modified by media properties.
Abstract: The toxicity effects of silver (nAg) and zinc oxide (nZnO) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on the duckweed Spirodela punctuta were studied to investigate the potential risks posed by these ENPs towards higher aquatic plants. The influence of media abiotic factors on the stability of the ENPs was also evaluated. Marked agglomeration of ENPs was observed after introduction into testing media whereby large particles settled out of suspension and accumulated at the bottom of testing vessels. The high ionic strength (IS) promoted agglomeration of ENPs because it reduced the inter-particle repulsion caused by a reduction in their surface charge. Low dissolution was observed for nAg, reaching only 0.015% at 1000 mg L−1, whilst improved dissolution was observed for nZnO, only falling below analytical quantification at 0.1 mg L−1 and lower. The quantification of free radicals namely, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), indicated the induction of oxidative stress in plants exposed to the ENPs. A definite dose influence was observed for ROS/RNS volumes in plants exposed to nZnO for 14 days, a response not always observed. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plants indicated varying degrees of oxidative toxicity caused by exposure to ENPs. This toxicity was driven mainly by particulates in plants exposed to nAg, whilst dissolved Zn2+ was the main driver for toxicity in plants exposed to nZnO. Our findings suggest that the toxicity of nAg and nZnO could be caused by both the particulates and ionic forms, as modified by media properties.
TL;DR: The results provide the first quantification of ENMs potential risk into the environment Johannesburg City in a developing country’s natural and technical settings.
Abstract: This paper attempts to quantify the potential risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems from cosmetic-based nanoproducts. The predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) were modelled for the silver (nAg) and titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) nanoparticles embedded in cosmetic nanoproducts. The Johannesburg Metropolitan City (JHB City), in South Africa, was used as the reference study area. A mathematical model was applied to compute the quantities of ENMs flows from the cosmetic nanoproducts into the JHB City aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The risk quotient (RQ) of the nanoscale materials were evaluated as a ratio of PEC to the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). RQ values showed wide variance due to factors like; the quantities of ENMs, the fate and pathways of ENMs in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, efficiency of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as well as the economic and demographic data for South Africa and Switzerland. For the aquatic environment, the PEC values of nAg ranged from 2.80 × 10(-3) to 6.19 × 10(-1) μg L(-1) whereas for nTiO(2) the values ranged from 2.7 0 × 10(-3) to 2.70 × 10(-1) μg L(-1) under the realistic dilution factor of 1 with the WWTP functioning at high removal efficiency regime. The RQ values in the aquatic ecosystems were mostly >1, indicating the potential risk of both nAg and nTiO(2) but <<<1 in the terrestrial ecosystems. Our results provide the first quantification of ENMs potential risk into the environment Johannesburg City in a developing country's natural and technical settings.
TL;DR: This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity, and the role of different NP materials.
Abstract: Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials.
TL;DR: It can be concluded that the therapeutic window for silver is narrower than often assumed, however, the risks for humans and the environment are probably limited.
Abstract: The antibacterial action of silver is utilized in numerous consumer products and medical devices. Metallic silver, silver salts, and also silver nanoparticles are used for this purpose. The state of research on the effect of silver on bacteria, cells, and higher organisms is summarized. It can be concluded that the therapeutic window for silver is narrower than often assumed. However, the risks for humans and the environment are probably limited.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors combined market information and material flow modeling to produce the first global assessment of the likely ENM emissions to the environment and landfills, estimating that 63-91% of over 260,000-309,000 metric tons of global ENM production in 2010 ended up in landfill, with the balance released into soils, water bodies, and atmosphere.
Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now becoming a significant fraction of the material flows in the global economy. We are already reaping the benefits of improved energy efficiency, material use reduction, and better performance in many existing and new applications that have been enabled by these technological advances. As ENMs pervade the global economy, however, it becomes important to understand their environmental implications. As a first step, we combined ENM market information and material flow modeling to produce the first global assessment of the likely ENM emissions to the environment and landfills. The top ten most produced ENMs by mass were analyzed in a dozen major applications. Emissions during the manufacturing, use, and disposal stages were estimated, including intermediate steps through wastewater treatment plants and waste incineration plants. In 2010, silica, titania, alumina, and iron and zinc oxides dominate the ENM market in terms of mass flow through the global economy, used mostly in coatings/paints/pigments, electronics and optics, cosmetics, energy and environmental applications, and as catalysts. We estimate that 63–91 % of over 260,000–309,000 metric tons of global ENM production in 2010 ended up in landfills, with the balance released into soils (8–28 %), water bodies (0.4–7 %), and atmosphere (0.1–1.5 %). While there are considerable uncertainties in the estimates, the framework for estimating emissions can be easily improved as better data become available. The material flow estimates can be used to quantify emissions at the local level, as inputs for fate and transport models to estimate concentrations in different environmental compartments.
TL;DR: In this paper, the main parameters that will affect the surface state of nanoparticles and their influence on antimicrobial efficacy are reviewed and an analysis of several works on Ag NPs activity, observed through the scope of an oxidative Ag+ release.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles constitute a very promising approach for the development of new antimicrobial systems. Nanoparticulate objects can bring significant improvements in the antibacterial activity of this element, through specific effect such as an adsorption at bacterial surfaces. However, the mechanism of action is essentially driven by the oxidative dissolution of the nanoparticles, as indicated by recent direct observations. The role of Ag+ release in the action mechanism was also indirectly observed in numerous studies, and explains the sensitivity of the antimicrobial activity to the presence of some chemical species, notably halides and sulfides which form insoluble salts with Ag+. As such, surface properties of Ag nanoparticles have a crucial impact on their potency, as they influence both physical (aggregation, affinity for bacterial membrane, etc.) and chemical (dissolution, passivation, etc.) phenomena. Here, we review the main parameters that will affect the surface state of Ag NPs and their influence on antimicrobial efficacy. We also provide an analysis of several works on Ag NPs activity, observed through the scope of an oxidative Ag+ release.
TL;DR: True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available, and the modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target.
Abstract: Scientific consensus predicts that the worldwide use of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) leads to their release into the environment. We reviewed the available literature concerning environmental concentrations of six ENMs (TiO2, ZnO, Ag, fullerenes, CNT and CeO2) in surface waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents, biosolids, sediments, soils and air. Presently, a dozen modeling studies provide environmental concentrations for ENM and a handful of analytical works can be used as basis for a preliminary validation. There are still major knowledge gaps (e.g. on ENM production, application and release) that affect the modeled values, but over all an agreement on the order of magnitude of the environmental concentrations can be reached. True validation of the modeled values is difficult because trace analytical methods that are specific for ENM detection and quantification are not available. The modeled and measured results are not always comparable due to the different forms and sizes of particles that these two approaches target.