Bio: Nicholas Birns is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Literary theory & Deconstruction. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 3 citation(s).
01 Jan 2017-Partial Answers
TL;DR: The authors argues that the linguistic turn in literary theory, often seen as just a declarative and, in the view of some, catastrophic veering into deconstruction, actually had three 20th-century phases: the first was associated with a reaction to Romantic linguistic excess, manifesting itself in the work and theories of Eliot, Hofmannsthal, and the logical positivists.
Abstract: This essay argues that the linguistic turn in literary theory, often seen as just a declarative and, in the view of some, catastrophic veering into deconstruction, actually had three 20th-century phases. The first was associated with a reaction to Romantic linguistic excess and dominated the early part of the century, manifesting itself in the work and theories of Eliot, Hofmannsthal, and the logical positivists. The second phase was centered on semantics and was above all a reaction to what was seen as the misuse of language by midcentury totalitarian regimes in Europe. The New Criticism dominant in America during this era can be seen as part of this paradigm and therefore less oriented toward an aesthetic formalism than a defensive inoculation against linguistic abuse. The third phase is dominated by deconstruction and its promulgation of — following the earlier example of Roman Jakobson — a language radically independent of anterior reference and signification. Yet, paradoxically, the era, which was the ultimate unmooring of language from prudence and caution, also saw the elevation of a linguistic approach to all the disciplines, prompting speculation that perhaps the rhetoric of transgression concealed a reality of linguistic plenitude. In the 21st century, the epistemological primacy of language, though, seems to have yielded to empiricism and speculative ontology. Yet despite the new appeal of what Best and Marcus call "surface reading," and though the linguistic turn cannot return as it was in the 20th century, its multiple legacies are important.
03 Sep 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a guide to help students write critical essays about books or other literary works, including how to read texts critically, how to locate and use outside sources of information to gain additional perspectives on a literary work, and how to organize and write the report.
Abstract: T HE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE is to help you write critical essays about books or other literary works. When you write literary criticism, you combine reasoned analysis with your personal evaluation of the work. Literary analysis and book reviews differ from the standard book reports you were assigned in earlier grades. A book report is a mere summary of a work that describes what happened in a text and when. However, in literary criticism and book reviews, you must bring your own critical skills to bear as you analyze a text. Your instructor will be asking you to evaluate and critique the work, not just summarize it. One of the exciting things about writing literary criticism is that you can share with others what you have learned and experienced while reading a poem, play, or novel. This personal experience is just that—personal—and is an essential ingredient for effective criticism and reviews. Nevertheless, although your work will reflect your individuality, there are some general approaches and techniques that can assist you in organizing your thoughts and creating your final report. The sections of this guide provide hints and strategies that will save you time and help you create a more thoughtful, well-written document. How to read texts critically How to locate and use outside sources of information to gain additional perspectives on a literary work How to organize and write the report How to write reports on nonfiction texts
03 Nov 2004-Nursing Standard