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Nigel N. Clark

Bio: Nigel N. Clark is an academic researcher from West Virginia University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diesel fuel & Truck. The author has an hindex of 40, co-authored 321 publications receiving 6588 citations. Previous affiliations of Nigel N. Clark include University of Virginia & University College of Engineering.


Papers
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TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fuelled with petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35.
Abstract: Biodiesel, a fuel that can be made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats, has been recognized recently as an environment friendly alternative fuel for diesel engines. In this paper, we describe a study that compared exhaust emissions from in-use heavy trucks fueled with a biodiesel blend with those from trucks fueled with petroleum diesel. The biodiesel blend tested is a mixture of 35% biodiesel and 65% petroleum diesel, a blend designated as B35. The study is based on the field test results from West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy Duty Chassis Dynamometer Emissions Testing Laboratory and sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The heavy trucks we tested performed well when the originally equipped compression-ignition engine (diesel engine) was fueled with B35 without any engine modifications. Fuel economy (in terms of gallon per mile) of the two fuels was about the same. The emissions test results have shown that the heavy trucks fueled by B35 emitted sign...

454 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the expected probability distribution of measured chord sizes from a given bubble diameter is deduced and the relationship between bubble size distributions and chord length distributions explored from geometrics reasoning.

155 citations

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TL;DR: In the representative gasoline fleet profiles, variation was further reduced, with cold-start or warm-start and the representation of smoker vehicles making a difference of approximately a factor of two in mass emission rate and EC/OC.
Abstract: As part of the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, relatively large fleets of gasoline vehicles53 and diesel vehicles34 were tested on a chassis dynamometer to develop chemical source profiles for source attribution of atmospheric particulate matter in California’s South Coast Air Basin. Gasoline vehicles were tested in cold-start and warm-start conditions, and diesel vehicles were tested through several driving cycles. Tailpipe emissions of particulate matter were analyzed for organic tracer compounds, including hopanes, steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Large intervehicle variation was seen in emission rate and composition, and results were averaged to examine the impacts of vehicle ages, weight classes, and driving cycles on the variation. Average profiles, weighted by mass emission rate, had much lower uncertainty than that associated with intervehicle variation. Mass emission rates and elemental carbon/organic carbon (EC/OC) ratios for gasoline vehicle age classes were influenced m...

139 citations

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TL;DR: The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled.
Abstract: Societal and governmental pressures to reduce diesel exhaust emissions are reflected in the existing and projected future heavy-duty certification standards of these emissions. Various factors affect the amount of emissions produced by a heterogeneous charge diesel engine in any given situation, but these are poorly quantified in the existing literature. The parameters that most heavily affect the emissions from compression ignition engine-powered vehicles include vehicle class and weight, driving cycle, vehicle vocation, fuel type, engine exhaust aftertreatment, vehicle age, and the terrain traveled. In addition, engine control effects (such as injection timing strategies) on measured emissions can be significant. Knowing the effect of each aspect of engine and vehicle operation on the emissions from diesel engines is useful in determining methods for reducing these emissions and in assessing the need for improvement in inventory models. The effects of each of these aspects have been quantified in this paper to provide an estimate of the impact each one has on the emissions of diesel engines.

133 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study are presented and variations in their abundances to total carbon or PM2.5 among the SI composition profiles are observed.
Abstract: The U.S. Department of Energy Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study examined the sources of uncertainties in using an organic compound-based chemical mass balance receptor model to quantify the contributions of spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine exhaust to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5). This paper presents the chemical composition profiles of SI and CI engine exhaust from the vehicle-testing portion of the study. Chemical analysis of source samples consisted of gravimetric mass, elements, ions, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) by the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) and Speciation Trends Network (STN) thermal/optical methods, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, steranes, alkanes, and polar organic compounds. More than half of the mass of carbonaceous particles emitted by heavy-duty diesel trucks was EC (IMPROVE) and emissions from SI vehicles contained predominantly OC. Although total carbon (TC) by the IMPROVE and STN protocols agreed well for all of the samples, the STN/IMPROVE ratios for EC from SI exhaust decreased with decreasing sample loading. SI vehicles, whether low or high emitters, emitted greater amounts of high-molecular-weight particulate PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and coronene) than did CI vehicles. Diesel emissions contained higher abundances of two- to four-ring semivolatile PAHs. Diacids were emitted by CI vehicles but are also prevalent in secondary organic aerosols, so they cannot be considered unique tracers. Hopanes and steranes were present in lubricating oil with similar composition for both gasoline and diesel vehicles and were negligible in gasoline or diesel fuels. CI vehicles emitted greater total amounts of hopanes and steranes on a mass per mile basis, but abundances were comparable to SI exhaust normalized to TC emissions within measurement uncertainty. The combustion-produced high-molecular-weight PAHs were found in used gasoline motor oil but not in fresh oil and are negligible in used diesel engine oil. The contributions of lubrication oils to abundances of these PAHs in the exhaust were large in some cases and were variable with the age and consumption rate of the oil. These factors contributed to the observed variations in their abundances to total carbon or PM2.5 among the SI composition profiles.

125 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article presented a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3-22 Tg/yr for BC and 17-77 Tg /yr for OC.
Abstract: [1] We present a global tabulation of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) particles emitted from combustion. We include emissions from fossil fuels, biofuels, open biomass burning, and burning of urban waste. Previous ‘‘bottom-up’’ inventories of black and organic carbon have assigned emission factors on the basis of fuel type and economic sector alone. Because emission rates are highly dependent on combustion practice, we consider combinations of fuel, combustion type, and emission controls and their prevalence on a regional basis. Central estimates of global annual emissions are 8.0 Tg for black carbon and 33.9 Tg for organic carbon. These estimates are lower than previously published estimates by 25–35%. The present inventory is based on 1996 fuel-use data, updating previous estimates that have relied on consumption data from 1984. An offset between decreased emission factors and increased energy use since the base year of the previous inventory prevents the difference between this work and previous inventories from being greater. The contributions of fossil fuel, biofuel, and open burning are estimated as 38%, 20%, and 42%, respectively, for BC, and 7%, 19%, and 74%, respectively, for OC. We present a bottom-up estimate of uncertainties in source strength by combining uncertainties in particulate matter emission factors, emission characterization, and fuel use. The total uncertainties are about a factor of 2, with uncertainty ranges of 4.3–22 Tg/yr for BC and 17–77 Tg/yr for OC. Low-technology combustion contributes greatly to both the emissions and the uncertainties. Advances in emission characterization for small residential, industrial, and mobile sources and topdown analysis combining field measurements and transport modeling with iterative inventory development will be required to reduce the uncertainties further. INDEX TERMS: 0305 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Aerosols and particles (0345, 4801); 0322 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Constituent sources and sinks; 0345 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Pollution—urban and regional (0305); 0360 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Transmission and scattering of radiation; 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure: Troposphere—composition and chemistry; KEYWORDS: emission, black carbon, organic carbon, fossil fuel, biofuel, biomass burning

2,180 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors collected and analyzed the body of work written mainly in scientific journals about diesel engine emissions when using biodiesel fuels as opposed to conventional diesel fuels, focusing on the most concerning emissions: nitric oxides and particulate matter.

1,768 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, explicit equations for the drag coefficient and for the terminal velocity of falling spherical and nonspherical particles are developed for the CD and ut. The goodness of fit of these equations to the reported experimental data is evaluated and compared with that of other recently proposed equations.

1,632 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production.
Abstract: The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and consumption of fossil fuels have led to a reduction in petroleum reserves. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain region of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum oil. Hence it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country. Although vegetative oils can be fuel for diesel engines, but their high viscosities, low volatilities and poor cold flow properties have led to the investigation of its various derivatives. Among the different possible sources, fatty acid methyl esters, known as Biodiesel fuel derived from triglycerides (vegetable oil and animal fates) by transesterification with methanol, present the promising alternative substitute to diesel fuels and have received the most attention now a day. The main advantages of using Biodiesel are its renewability, better quality exhaust gas emission, its biodegradability and the organic carbon present in it is photosynthetic in origin. It does not contribute to a rise in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and consequently to the green house effect. This paper reviews the source of production and characterization of vegetable oils and their methyl ester as the substitute of the petroleum fuel and future possibilities of Biodiesel production.

1,250 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The design procedure starts by defining a cost function, such as minimizing a combination of fuel consumption and selected emission species over a driving cycle, and dynamic programming is utilized to find the optimal control actions including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and motor while subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint.
Abstract: Hybrid vehicle techniques have been widely studied recently because of their potential to significantly improve the fuel economy and drivability of future ground vehicles. Due to the dual-power-source nature of these vehicles, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to fully explore the potential of these advanced vehicles. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a near-optimal power management strategy. The design procedure starts by defining a cost function, such as minimizing a combination of fuel consumption and selected emission species over a driving cycle. Dynamic programming (DP) is then utilized to find the optimal control actions including the gear-shifting sequence and the power split between the engine and motor while subject to a battery SOC-sustaining constraint. Through analysis of the behavior of DP control actions, near-optimal rules are extracted, which, unlike DP control signals, are implementable. The performance of this power management control strategy is studied by using the hybrid vehicle model HE-VESIM developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan. A tradeoff study between fuel economy and emissions was performed. It was found that significant emission reduction could be achieved at the expense of a small increase in fuel consumption.

1,242 citations